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A very slightly soluble compound.

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Carbonium ion

An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.

Functional Group

A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.

Saccharide

An organic compound containing a sugar or sugars.

Reaction Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among substances as they participate in chemical reactions.

How to make crystal glass

From history we know that the idea of creating crystal belongs to the British: they were the first to add lead oxides to the charge material, and as a result got glass with unusual “voice”, transparency and sparkling faces. Classical crystal contains 24% of lead oxide, but there are products with a higher content of up to 30%.

Standard Electrodes

Half-cells in which the oxidized and reduced forms of a species are present at unit activity, 1.0M solutions of dissolved ions, 1.0atm partial pressure of gases, and pure solids and liquids.

Homologous Series

A series of compounds in which each member differs from the next by a specific number and kind of atoms.

Coke

An impure form of carbon obtained by destructive distillation of coal or petroleum.

Standard Electrode Potential

By convention, potential, Eo, of a half-reaction as a reduction relative to the standard hydrogen electrode when all species are present at unit activity.

 

Polarization

The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.