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Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals for one shell inside the outermost occupied shell in its hybridization.

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Formula Unit

The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule for nonionic substances

Geometrical Isomers

Compounds with different arrangements of groups on either side of a bond with restricted rotation, such as a double bond or a single bond in a ring, for example cis-trans isomers of certain alkenes. Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other, also known as position isomers.

Born-Haber Cycle

A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

Line Spectrum

An atomic emission or absorption spectrum.

Functional Group

A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.

Periodic Table of Elements

An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that also emphasizes periodicity.

Amphiprotism

Ability of a substance to exhibit amphiprotism by accepting donated protons.

Temperature

A measure of the intensity of heat, i.e. the hotness or coldness of a sample. or object.

Group

A vertical column in the periodic table, also called a family.

Coordination Number

In describing crystals, the number of nearest neighbours of an atom or ion. The number of donor atoms coordinated to a metal.