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Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals for one shell inside the outermost occupied shell in its hybridization.

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Cis-Trans Isomerism

A type of geometrical isomerism related to the angles between like ligands.

Condensation

Liquefaction of vapor.

Colligative Properties

Physical properties of solutions that depend upon the number but not the kind of solute particles present.

Electrochemistry

Study of chemical changes produced by electrical current and the production of electricity by chemical reactions.

Mass

A measure of the amount of matter in an object. Mass is usually measured in grams or kilograms.

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

A technique for measuring the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermal transitions in a sample material by heating/cooling and comparing the amount of energy required to maintain its rate of temperature increase or decrease with an inert reference material under similar conditions.

Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, there is no net change in concentrations of reactants or products while a system is at equilibrium.

Law of Definite Proportions (Law of Constant Composition)

The law stating that a pure substance will always have the same percent by weight. Different samples of a pure compound always contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass.

Heavy Water

Water containing deuterium, a heavy isotope of hydrogen.

Molecular Formula

Formula that indicates the actual number of atoms present in a molecule of a molecular substance.

Vapor Pressure

The particle pressure of a vapor at the surface of its parent liquid.

Compressed Gas

A gas or mixture of gases having, in a container an absolute pressure exceeding 40 psi at 21.1°C (70°F)

Entropy

A thermodynamic state or property that measures the degree of disorder or randomness of a system.

Gel

Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid, a semirigid solid.

Thermal Cracking

Decomposition by heating a substance in the presence of a catalyst and in the absence of air.

 

Partial Pressure

The pressure exerted by one gas in a mixture of gases.

Frequency

The number of repeating corresponding points on a wave that pass a given observation point per unit time.

Double Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of four electrons (two pairs) between two atoms.

Inhibitory Catalyst

An inhibitor, a catalyst that decreases the rate of reaction.

Enthalpy

The heat content of a specific amount of substance, defined as E= PV.