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Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals for one shell inside the outermost occupied shell in its hybridization.

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History of fireworks

There is an assumption that the history of fireworks started in China, about 2000 years ago. It is possible that the Chinese accidentally discovered explosions by burning bamboo canes.

Period

The elements in a horizontal row of the periodic table.

Half-Cell

Compartment in which the oxidation or reduction half-reaction occurs in a voltaic cell.

Polymerization

The combination of many small molecules to form large molecules.

Gamma Ray

High energy electromagnetic radiation. A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x-ray radiation, except that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom and has a higher energy. Energywise, very similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate from outer space.

Associated Ions

Short-lived species formed by the collision of dissolved ions of opposite charges.

Enthalpy

The heat content of a specific amount of substance, defined as E= PV.

Frequency

The number of repeating corresponding points on a wave that pass a given observation point per unit time.

Downs Cell

Electrolytic cell for the commercial electrolysis of molten sodium chloride. For further information see Electrochemistry or Fuel Cells.

Coulometry

The quantitative application of Faraday's Law to the analysis of materials. The current and time are the usual variables measured.