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One equivalent weight of a substance is produced at each electrode during the passage of 96,487 coulombs of charge through an electrolytic cell.

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Nonbonding Orbital

A molecular orbital derived only from an atomic orbital of one atom, lends neither stability nor instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons.

Nernst Equation

Corrects standard electrode potentials for nonstandard conditions.

Ionization Constant

Equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak electrolyte.

Ideal Solution

A solution that obeys Raoult's Law exactly.

Molecular Orbital Theory

A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular orbitals.

Pauli Exclusion Principle

No two electrons in the same atom may have identical sets of four quantum numbers.

Nitrogenases

A class of enzymes found in bacteria within root nodules in some plants, which catalyze reactions by which N2 molecules from the air are converted to ammonia.

 

Dilution

Process of reducing the concentration of a solute in solution, usually simply by mixing with more solvent.

Frequency

The number of repeating corresponding points on a wave that pass a given observation point per unit time.

Mass

A measure of the amount of matter in an object. Mass is usually measured in grams or kilograms.

Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.

Supersaturated Solution

A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.

Carbonium ion

An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.

xenon trioxide

A colorless, nonvolatile solid, XeO3, explosive when dry: in solution it is called xenic acid.

Polarimeter

A device used to measure optical activity.

Crystalline Solid

A solid characterized by a regular, ordered arrangement of particles.

Zinc

Discovered: known in India and China before 1500 and to the Greeks and Romans before 20 BC as the copper-zinc alloy brass
Origin: The name is derived from the German ‘Zink’.
Atomic no: 30
Mass No: 65
Description: A grey metal with a blue tinge. World production exceeds 7 million tons a year, and it is used to galvanise iron to prevent it rusting. It is also employed in alloys and batteries, and as zinc oxide to stabilise rubber and plastics. Zinc is essential for all living things, and is important for growth and development. The average human body contains about 2.5 grams and takes in about 15 milligrams per day. Some foods have above average levels of zinc, including herring, beef, lamb, sunflower seeds and cheese.

Condensation

Liquefaction of vapor.

Halogens

Group VIIA elements: F, Cl, Br, I

Quantum Numbers

Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms, derived from quantum mechanical treatment.