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One faraday of electricity corresponds to the charge on 6.022 x 1023 electrons, or 96,487.301 coulombs.

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Boyle's Law

At constant temperature the volume occupied by a definite mass of a gas is inversely proportional to the applied pressure.

Catalyst

A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed itself in the reaction.
A substance that alters (usually increases) the rate at which a reaction occurs.

Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types.

The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The device is based on a complex process of "tunneling" electrons between the material and the tip of a probe.

Group

A vertical column in the periodic table, also called a family.

Fluids

Substances that flow freely, gases and liquids.

Henry's Law

The pressure of the gas above a solution is proportional to the concentration of the gas in the solution.

Periodicity

Regular periodic variations of properties of elements with atomic number (and position in the periodic table).

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Oxidation

An algebraic increase in the oxidation number, may correspond to a loss of electrons.

K Capture

Absorption of a K shell (n=1) electron by a proton as it is converted to a neutron.