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Refers to chemical similarities in the Periodic Table of elements of Period 2 to elements of Period 3 one group to the right, especially evident toward the left of the periodic table.

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Crystal Lattice Energy

Amount of energy that holds a crystal together, the energy change when a mole of solid is formed from its constituent molecules or ions (for ionic compounds) in their gaseous state.

Gel

Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid, a semirigid solid.

Ionic Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) about the central atom of a polyatomic ion.

Endothermicity

The absorption of heat by a system as the process occurs.

Electrolytic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current by ions through a solution or pure liquid.

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

It is impossible to determine accurately both the momentum and position of an electron simultaneously.

Thermodynamics

The study of the energy transfers accompanying physical and chemical processes.

Covalent Bond

Chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two atoms.

Pairing

A favourable interaction of two electrons with opposite m , values in the same orbital.

Solvation

The process by which solvent molecules surround and interact with solute ions or molecules.