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A commercial term used to describe ethanol that has been rendered unfit for human consumption because of the addition of harmful ingredients to make it sales tax-expempt.

 

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Ore

A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be extracted.

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Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Benzene and its derivatives.

Emulsifying Agent

A sustance that coats the particles of the dispersed phase and prevents coagulation of colloidal particles, an emulsifier.

Polyprotic Acid

An Acid that can form two or more hydronium ions per molecule, often a least one step of ionization is weak.

Concentration

Amount of solute per unit volume or mass of solvent or of solution.

Nitrogen Cycle

The complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is slowly but continually recycled in the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.

 

Associated Ions

Short-lived species formed by the collision of dissolved ions of opposite charges.

Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

Chemical Kinetics

The study of rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions and of the factors on which they depend.