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A commercial term used to describe ethanol that has been rendered unfit for human consumption because of the addition of harmful ingredients to make it sales tax-expempt.

 

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Meniscus

The shape assumed by the surface of a liquid in a cylindrical container.

Strong Electrolyte

A substance that conducts electricity well in a dilute aqueous solution.

 

Standard Reaction

A reaction in which the numbers of moles of reactants shown in the balanced equation, all in their standard states, are completely converted to the numbers of moles of products shown in the balanced equation, also sall at their standard state.

Energy

The capacity to do work or transfer heat.

Buffer Solution

Solution that resists change in pH, contains either a weak acid and a soluble ionic salt of the acid or a weak base and a soluble ionic salt of the base.

Dipole-dipole Interactions

Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.

Boiling Point Elevation

The increase in the boiling point of a solvent caused by the dissolution of a nonvolatile solute.

Organic Chemistry

The chemistry of substances that contain carbon-hydrogen bonds.

Coordinate Covalent Bond

A covalent bond in which both shared electrons are donated by the same atom, a bond between a Lewis base and a Lewis acid.

Octahedral

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and six atoms at the corners of a octahedron.