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A commercial term used to describe ethanol that has been rendered unfit for human consumption because of the addition of harmful ingredients to make it sales tax-expempt.

 

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D -Transition elements (metals)

B Group elements except IIB in the periodic table, sometimes called simply transition elements EX. Fe, Ni, Cu, Ti .
For further information see Metals.

Levorotatory

Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light counterclockwise, also called levo.

Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy

The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.

Heterogeneous Equilibria

Equilibria involving species in more than one phase.

Standard Reaction

A reaction in which the numbers of moles of reactants shown in the balanced equation, all in their standard states, are completely converted to the numbers of moles of products shown in the balanced equation, also sall at their standard state.

Salinometer

An instrument for measuring the amount of salt in a solution. Also,"salimeter, salometer."

Oxidizing Agent

The substance that oxidizes another substance and is reduced.

Delocalization

Of electrons, refers to bonding electrons that are distributed among more than two atoms that are bonded together, occurs in species that exhibit resonance.
The formation of a set of molecular orbitals that extend over more than two atoms, important in species that valence bond theory describes in terms of resonance.

Crystal Field Theory

Theory of bonding in transition metal complexes in which ligands and metal ions are treated as point charges, a purely ionic model, ligand point charges represent the crystal (electrical) field perturbing the metal?s d orbitals containing nonbonding electrons.

Lewis Acid

Any species that can accept a share in an electron pair.