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A commercial term used to describe ethanol that has been rendered unfit for human consumption because of the addition of harmful ingredients to make it sales tax-expempt.

 

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Flammable

A liquid as defined by NFPD and DOT as having a flash point below 37.8°C (100°F).

Pairing Energy

Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.

Polarization

The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.

Crystal Lattice Energy

Amount of energy that holds a crystal together, the energy change when a mole of solid is formed from its constituent molecules or ions (for ionic compounds) in their gaseous state.

Amide

Compound containing the O-C-N group.Compound that can be considered a derivative of ammonia in which one or more hydrogens are replaced by a alkyl or aryl groups.

 

Sigma Bonds

Bonds resulting from the head-on overlap of atomic orbitals, in which the region of electron sharing is along and (cylindrically) symmetrical to the imaginary line connecting the bonded atoms.

Fuel Cells

Voltaic cells in which the reactants (usually gases) are supplied continuously.
A voltaic cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidizing agent directly into electriacl energy on a continuous basis.

Secondary Standard

A solution that has been titrated against a primary standard. A standard solution is a secondary standard.

 

Percent Composition

The mass percent of each element in a compound.

Oil

Liquid triester of glycerol and unsaturated fatty acids.