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The temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied, the temperature above which a substance cannot exhibit distinct gas and liquid phases.

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Phosphoric Acid

H3P04, Colorless liquid or rhombic crystals, decomposes before it will boil. Used mostly in the metal etchant. Used in cleaning operations to remove encrusted surface matter and mineral scale found on metal equipment such as boilers and steam producing equipment. Also used to brighten metals and remove rust.

Polymerization

The combination of many small molecules to form large molecules.

Mass Spectrometer

An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.

Antibonding Orbital

A molecular orbital higher in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons, denoted with a star (*) superscript or symbol.

Thermodynamics

The study of the energy transfers accompanying physical and chemical processes.

yttrium metal

Any of a subgroup of rare-earth elements, of which the cerium and terbium metals comprise the other two subgroups.

Chemical Equation

Description of a chemical reaction by placing the formulas of the reactants on the left and the formulas of products on the right of an arrow.

Electrolyte

A substance whose aqueous solutions conduct electricity.

 

Ferromagnetism

The ability of a substance to become permanently magnetized by exposure to an external magnetic field.

Group

A vertical column in the periodic table, also called a family.