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The solid and liquid states.

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Coke

An impure form of carbon obtained by destructive distillation of coal or petroleum.

Corrosion

Oxidation of metals in the presence of air and moisture.

Heterocyclic Amine

Amine in which the nitrogen is part of a ring.

Critical Pressure

The pressure required to liquefy a gas (vapor) at its critical temperature.

Bronsted-Lowry Base

A proton acceptor

Dipole-dipole Interactions

Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.

yttrium

A rare trivalent metallic element, found in gadolinite and other minerals. Symbol: Y, at. wt.: 88.905, at. no.: 39, sp. gr.: 4.47. Cf."rare-earth element."

Yttrium has a silver-metallic luster and is relatively stable in air unless finely divided. Turnings of the metal, however, ignite in air if their temperature exceeds 400oC. Yttrium oxide is one of the most important compounds of yttrium and accounts for the largest use. It is widely used in making YVO4 europium, and Y2O3 europium phosphors to give the red color in color television tubes.

Copper

Discovered : known to ancient civilisations
Origin : The name is derived from 'Cuprum', the Latin name for Cyprus.

Exothermicity

The release of heat by a system as a process occurs.

Concentration

Amount of solute per unit volume or mass of solvent or of solution.

Shielding Effect

Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.

Equation of State

An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a given state, the van der Waals equation describes the behavior of the gaseous state.

Coordination Sphere

The metal ion and its coordinating ligands but not any uncoordinated counter-ions.

Entropy

A thermodynamic state or property that measures the degree of disorder or randomness of a system.

Absolute Zero

The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.

ytterbium

A rare metallic element found in gadolinite and forming compounds resembling those of yttrium. Symbol: Yb, at. wt.: 173.04, at. no.: 70, sp. gr.: 6.96. Cf."rare-earth element."

 

Ether

Compound in which an oxygen atom is bonded to two alkyl or two aryl groups, or one alkyl and one aryl group.

Boiling Point Elevation

The increase in the boiling point of a solvent caused by the dissolution of a nonvolatile solute.

Particulate Matter

Fine divided solid particles suspended in polluted air.

Carbanion

An organic ion carrying a negative charge on a carbon atom.