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Amount of solute per unit volume or mass of solvent or of solution.

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Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types.

The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The device is based on a complex process of "tunneling" electrons between the material and the tip of a probe.

Free Radical

A highly reactive chemical species carrying no charge and having a single unpaired electron in an orbital.

Outer Orbital Complex

Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals in the outermost (occupied) shell in hybridization.

Fractional Precipitation

Removal of some ions from solution by precipitation while leaving other ions with similar properties in solution.

Distillate

The material in a distillation apparatus that is collected in the receiver.

 

Voltaic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which spontaneous chemical reactions produce electricity, also called galvanic cells.

 

Distillation

The separation of a liquid mixture into its components on the basis of differences in boiling points. The process in which components of a mixture are separated by boiling away the more volitile liquid.

Adhesive Forces

Forces of attraction between a liquid and another surface.

Activity of a component of ideal mixture

A dimensionless quantity whose magnitude is: equal to molar concentration in an ideal solution, equal to partial pressure in an ideal gas mixture, and defined as 1 for pure solids or liquids.

Natural Radioactivity

Spontaneous decomposition of an atom.