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An impure form of carbon obtained by destructive distillation of coal or petroleum.

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    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

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    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

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    Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...

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    People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car. This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is...

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    If you happen to break a rotten egg, then you know the smell of hydrogen sulfide, because the stench of the spoiled egg depends on of its presence in rotting protein substances.



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Freezing Point Depression

The decrease in the freezing point of a solvent caused by the presence of a solute.ing Point

Fossil Fuels

Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry

First Law of Thermodynamics

The total amount of energy in the universe is constant (also known as the Law of Conservation of Energy) energy is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions and physical changes.

Osmosis

The process by which solvent molecules pass through a semipermable membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated solution.

 

Exothermic

Describes processes that release heat energy.

Basic Anhydride

The oxide of a metal that reacts with water to form a base.

Enantiomer

One of the two mirror-image forms of an optically active molecule.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Cloud Chamber

A device for observing the paths of speeding particiles as vapor molecules condense on them to form foglike tracks.

yttria

Y2O3: A white, water-insoluble powder, Y2O3, used chiefly in incandescent gas and acetylene mantles.