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The prefix used to indicate that groups are located on the same side of a bon about which rotation is restricted.

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Atomic Orbital

Region or volume in space in which the probability of finding electrons is highest.

Periodic Table

An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that also emphasizes periodicity.

Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

Covalent Compounds

Compounds containing predominantly covalent bonds.

Cation

A positive ion, an atom or group of atoms that has lost one or more electrons.

Graham's Law

The rates of effusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molecular weights or densities.

Extrapolate

To estimate the value of a result outside the range of a series of known values. Technique used in standard additions calibration procedure.

xylic acid

Any of six colorless, crystalline, isomeric acids having the formula C9H10O2, derived from xylene.

Law of Definite Proportions (Law of Constant Composition)

The law stating that a pure substance will always have the same percent by weight. Different samples of a pure compound always contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass.

Band Theory of Metals

Theory that accounts for the bonding and properties of metallic solids.