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A class of silicate and aluminosilicate minerals with sheet-like structures that have enormous surface areas that can absorb large amounts of water.

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Valence Bond Theory

Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic orbitals on different atoms overlap and the electrons are shared.

Allotropic Modifications (Allotropes)

Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

Handmade crystal glass as a work of art

In order for the colored crystal to open in all its beauty and sparkle with every face natural light is required. Handmade crystal glass has specific tactile and aesthetic properties - it is pleasant to touch, it seems to radiate heat. To appreciate the quality and beauty of such things, of course, it is not enough to look at the picture.

Gangue

Sand, rock, and other impurities surrounding the mineral of interest in an ore.

Total Ionic Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction written to show the predominant form of all species in aqueous solution or in contact with water.

Adsorption

Adhesion of a species onto the surfaces of particles.

Alcohol

Hydrocarbon derivative containing an --OH group attached to a carbon atom not in an aromatic ring. Alcohols are a class of organic compounds containing the hydroxyl group, OH, attached to a carbon atom.

Hydrometer

A device used to measure the densities of liquids and solutions.

Flotation

Method by which hydrophobic (water-repelling) particles of an ore are separated from hydrophilic (water-attracting) particles of a metallurgical pretreatment process.

Phosphoric Acid

H3P04, Colorless liquid or rhombic crystals, decomposes before it will boil. Used mostly in the metal etchant. Used in cleaning operations to remove encrusted surface matter and mineral scale found on metal equipment such as boilers and steam producing equipment. Also used to brighten metals and remove rust.