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Potential difference, Ecell, between oxidation and reduction half-cells under nonstandard conditions.

 

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Cation

A positive ion, an atom or group of atoms that has lost one or more electrons.

Monoprotic Acid

Acid that can form only one hydronium ion per molecule, may be strong or weak. Acid that contains one ionizable hydrogen atom per formula unit.

Binary Acid

A binary compound in which H is bonded to one or more of the more electronegative nonmetals.

Flux

A substance added to react with the charge, or a product of its reduction, in metallurgy, usually added to lower a melting point.

Reverse Osmosis

Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.

Specific Rate Constant

An experimentally determined (proportionality) constant, which is different for different reactions and which changes only with temperature, k in the rate-law expression: Rate = k [A] x [B]v.

Fat

Solid triester of glycerol and (mostly) saturated fatty acids.

Hund's Rule

All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins.

Salicylate

A salt or ester of salicylic acid.

Photochemical Smog

A brownish smog occurring in urban areas receiving large amounts of sunlight, caused by photochemical (light-induced) reactions among nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and other components of polluted air that produce photochemical oxidants.