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A reaction that, once initiated, sustains itself and expands. This is a reaction in which reactive species, such as radicals, are produced in more than one step. These reactive species, radicals, propagate the chain reaction.

 

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Heat of Solution

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of solution that contains one mole of solute, the value is positive if heat is absorbed (endothermic) and negative if heat is released (exothermic).

Addition Reaction

A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).

Voltage

Potential difference between two electrodes, a measure of the chemical potential for a redox reaction to occur.

Photochemical Smog

A brownish smog occurring in urban areas receiving large amounts of sunlight, caused by photochemical (light-induced) reactions among nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and other components of polluted air that produce photochemical oxidants.

 

yttrium metal

Any of a subgroup of rare-earth elements, of which the cerium and terbium metals comprise the other two subgroups.

Weak Field Ligand

A Ligand that exerts a weak crystal or ligand field and ge- nerally forms high spin complexes with metals.

Mass Deficiency

The amount of matter that would be converted into energy if an atom were formed from constituent particles.

Heterocyclic Amine

Amine in which the nitrogen is part of a ring.

Frequency

The number of repeating corresponding points on a wave that pass a given observation point per unit time.

Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA)

A technique for observing the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermally induced transitions in a material by heating/cooling a sample and comparing its temperature with that of an inert reference material under similar conditions.