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A reaction that, once initiated, sustains itself and expands. This is a reaction in which reactive species, such as radicals, are produced in more than one step. These reactive species, radicals, propagate the chain reaction.

 

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Alkyl Group

A group of atoms derived from an alkane by the removal of one hydrogen atom.

Spectral Line

Any of a number of lines corresponding to definite wavelengths of an atomic emission or absorption spectrum, represents the energy difference between two energy levels.

 

Aufbau ('building up') Principle

Describes the order in which electrons fill orbitals in atoms.

PseudobinaryIonic Compounds

Compounds that contain more than two elements but are named like binary compounds.

Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

Nernst Equation

Corrects standard electrode potentials for nonstandard conditions.

Metal

An element below and to the left of the stepwise division (metalloids) in the upper right corner of the periodic table, about 80% of the known elements are metals.

Nitrogen Cycle

The complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is slowly but continually recycled in the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.

 

Strong Field Ligand

Ligand that exerts a strong crystal or ligand electrical field and generally forms low spin complexes with metal ions when possible.

Heterogeneous Catalyst

A catalyst that exists in a different phase (solid, liquid or gas) from the reactants, a contact catalyst.

Buffer Solution

Solution that resists change in pH, contains either a weak acid and a soluble ionic salt of the acid or a weak base and a soluble ionic salt of the base.

Enantiomer

One of the two mirror-image forms of an optically active molecule.

Standard Electrodes

Half-cells in which the oxidized and reduced forms of a species are present at unit activity, 1.0M solutions of dissolved ions, 1.0atm partial pressure of gases, and pure solids and liquids.

Element

A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means.

xanthate

A salt or ester of xanthic acid. Many xanthates have a yellow color. Xanthates are used as flotation agents in mineral processing.

Water Equivalent

The amount of water that would absorb the same amount of heat as the calorimeter per degree temperature increase.

Heterogeneous Mixture

A mixture that does not have uniform composition and properties throughout.

Leclanche Cell

A common type of dry cell.

Ampere

Unit of electrical current, one ampere equals one coulomb per second.

 

Line Spectrum

An atomic emission or absorption spectrum.