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The drawing of a liquid up the inside of a small-bore tube when adhesive forces exceed cohesive forces, or the depression of the surface of the liquid when cohesive forces exceed the adhesive forces.

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  • Varieties of garnet minerals

    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

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    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...

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    Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...



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Chain Termination Step

The combination of two radicals, which removes the reactive species that propagate the change reaction.

Radiation

High energy particles or rays emitted during the nuclear decay processes.

Carbonium ion

An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.

Shielding Effect

Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.

Le Chatelier's Principle

States that a system at equilibrium, or striving to attain equilibrium, responds in such a way as to counteract any stress placed upon it.
If a stress (change of conditions) is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that reduces stress.

Saccharide

An organic compound containing a sugar or sugars.

Reducing Agent

The substance that reduces another substance and is oxidized.

Molecular Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) around a central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among elements and compounds as they undergo chemical changes.

Standard Electrode Potential

By convention, potential, Eo, of a half-reaction as a reduction relative to the standard hydrogen electrode when all species are present at unit activity.