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Pair of electrons involved in a covalent bond.

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Freezing Point Depression

The decrease in the freezing point of a solvent caused by the presence of a solute.ing Point

Deposition

The direct solidification of a vapor by cooling, the reverse of sublimation.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Thermonuclear Energy

The energy stored in the nucleus of an atom and released through fission, fusion, or radioactivity. In these processes a small amount of mass is converted to energy according to the relationship E = mc2, where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light.

Net Ionic Equation

Equation that results from canceling spectator ions and eliminating brackets from a total ionic equation.

Reversible Reaction

Reactions that do not go to completion and occur in both the forward and reverse direction.

Solution

Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.

Spectrum

Display of component wavelengths (colours) of electromagnetic radiation.

Critical Temperature

The temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied, the temperature above which a substance cannot exhibit distinct gas and liquid phases.

Exothermic

Describes processes that release heat energy.