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Pair of electrons involved in a covalent bond.

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Fossil Fuels

Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry

Lewis Base

Any species that can make available a share in an electron pair.

Varieties of garnet minerals

The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in elite jewelry.

Phosphorus Oxychloride

Colorless to slightly yellow fuming liquid.

Mol. Wt.: 153.39
M.P.: 20C
B.P.: 105.1C
Density: 1.685 @ 15.5C
Vapor Pressure: 40 mm @ 27.3C
Vapor Density: 5.3
Used as the phosphorus source for phosphorus diffusion.

Cell Potential

Potential difference, Ecell, between oxidation and reduction half-cells under nonstandard conditions.

 

Net Ionic Equation

Equation that results from canceling spectator ions and eliminating brackets from a total ionic equation.

Secondary Standard

A solution that has been titrated against a primary standard. A standard solution is a secondary standard.

 

Domain

A cluster of atoms in a ferromagnetic substance, all of which align in the same direction in the presence of an external magnetic field.

Adsorption

Adhesion of a species onto the surfaces of particles.

Neutralization

The reaction of an acid with a base to form a salt and water. Usually, the reaction of hydrogen ions with hydrogen ions to form water molecules.