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Pair of electrons involved in a covalent bond.

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Ideal Solution

A solution that obeys Raoult's Law exactly.

Half-Cell

Compartment in which the oxidation or reduction half-reaction occurs in a voltaic cell.

Nitrogen Cycle

The complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is slowly but continually recycled in the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.

 

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

It is impossible to determine accurately both the momentum and position of an electron simultaneously.

Geiger counter

A gas filled tube which discharges electriaclly when ionizing radiation passes through it.

Continuous Spectrum

Spectrum that contains all wave-lengths in a specified region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Ionization

In aqueous solution, the process in which a molecular compound reacts with water and forms ions.

K Capture

Absorption of a K shell (n=1) electron by a proton as it is converted to a neutron.

Geometrical Isomers

Compounds with different arrangements of groups on either side of a bond with restricted rotation, such as a double bond or a single bond in a ring, for example cis-trans isomers of certain alkenes. Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other, also known as position isomers.

Fuel Cells

Voltaic cells in which the reactants (usually gases) are supplied continuously.
A voltaic cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidizing agent directly into electriacl energy on a continuous basis.

Tetrahedral

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in center and four atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron.

Alpha (a) Particle

Helium ion with 2+ charge, an assembly of two protons and two neutrons.

Photochemical Oxidants

Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants and animals.

Central Atom

An atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion that is bonded to more than one other atom.

Mass

A measure of the amount of matter in an object. Mass is usually measured in grams or kilograms.

Polarization

The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.

Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP)

A written program developed and implemented by an employer designating proceedures, equipment, personal protective equipment, and work practices that are capable of protecting employees from the health hazards presented by hazardous chemicals usid in that particular workplace.

Extrapolate

To estimate the value of a result outside the range of a series of known values. Technique used in standard additions calibration procedure.

Insulator

Poor electric and heat conductor.

Molecular Orbital Theory

A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular orbitals.