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A molecular orbit lower in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends stability to a molecule or ion when populated with electron.

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    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

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Ternary Compound

A compound consisting of three elements, may be ionic or covalent.

Born-Haber Cycle

A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

Half-Reaction

Either the oxidation part or the reduction part of a redox reaction.

Chemical Equation

Description of a chemical reaction by placing the formulas of the reactants on the left and the formulas of products on the right of an arrow.

Nonelectrolyte

A substance whose aqueous solutions do not conduct electricity.

Denatured

A commercial term used to describe ethanol that has been rendered unfit for human consumption because of the addition of harmful ingredients to make it sales tax-expempt.

 

Lewis Base

Any species that can make available a share in an electron pair.

Metallic Bonding

Bonding within metals due to the electrical attraction of positively charges metal ions for mobile electrons that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Vapor Pressure

The particle pressure of a vapor at the surface of its parent liquid.

Quantum Numbers

Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms, derived from quantum mechanical treatment.