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A molecular orbit lower in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends stability to a molecule or ion when populated with electron.

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Fractional Precipitation

Removal of some ions from solution by precipitation while leaving other ions with similar properties in solution.

xylic acid

Any of six colorless, crystalline, isomeric acids having the formula C9H10O2, derived from xylene.

Accuracy

How closely a measured value agrees with the correct value.

Hydrophilic Colloids

Colloidal particles that repel water molecules.

Condensed States

The solid and liquid states.

Absolute Zero

The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.

Dumas Method

A method used to determine the molecular weights of volatile liquids.

Entropy

A thermodynamic state or property that measures the degree of disorder or randomness of a system.

Metalloids

Elements with properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals: B, Al, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At.

Ideal Gas Law

The product of pressure and the volume of an ideal gas is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas and the absolute temperature.