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A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

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Polymer

A large molecule consisting of chains or rings of linked monomer units, usually characterized by high melting and boiling points.

Electrolytic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current by ions through a solution or pure liquid.

Transition State Theory

Theory of reaction rates that states that reactants pass through high-energy transition states before forming products.

Crystalline Solid

A solid characterized by a regular, ordered arrangement of particles.

Covalent Bond

Chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two atoms.

Nuclides

Refers to different atomic forms of all elements in contrast to ?isotopes?, which refer only to different atomic forms of a single element.

Crystal Field Stabilization Energy

A measure of the net energy of stabilization gained by a metal ion's nonbonding d electrons as a result of complex formation.

Radioactive Dating

Method of dating ancient objects by determining the ratio of amounts of mother and daughter nuclides present in an object and relating the ratio to the object?s age via half-life calculations.

Percentage Ionization

The percentage of the weak electrolyte that ionizes in a solution of given concentration.

Heat of Fusion

The amount of heat required to melt one gram of solid at its melting point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of fusion is the amount of heat required to melt one mole of a solid at its melting point with no change in temperature and is usually expressed in kJ/mol.