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A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

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Positron

A Nuclear particle with the mass of an electron but opposite charge.

Standard Entropy

The absolute entropy of a substance in its standard state at 298 K.

Molarity

Number of moles of solute per litre of solution.

Half-Life

The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s). The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.

Faraday's Law of Electrolysis

One equivalent weight of a substance is produced at each electrode during the passage of 96,487 coulombs of charge through an electrolytic cell.

Water Equivalent

The amount of water that would absorb the same amount of heat as the calorimeter per degree temperature increase.

Heat of Crystallization

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

Periodic Table

An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that also emphasizes periodicity.

Line Spectrum

An atomic emission or absorption spectrum.

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

It is impossible to determine accurately both the momentum and position of an electron simultaneously.