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A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

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Salinometer

An instrument for measuring the amount of salt in a solution. Also,"salimeter, salometer."

Buret

A piece of volumetric glassware, usually graduated in 0.1-mL intervals, that is used to deliver solutions to be used in titrations in a quantitative (dropwise) manner.

Photochemical Oxidants

Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants and animals.

Crystalline Solid

A solid characterized by a regular, ordered arrangement of particles.

Amphiprotism

Ability of a substance to exhibit amphiprotism by accepting donated protons.

Formula

Combination of symbols that indicates the chemical composition of a substance.

 

Reaction Ratio

The relative amounts of reactants and products involved in a reaction, maybe the ratio of moles. millimoles, or masses.

 

Linear Accelerator

A device used for accelerating charged particles along a straight line path.

Isomers

Different substances that have the same formula.

Polymerization

The combination of many small molecules to form large molecules.