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A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

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Double Salt

Solid consisting of two co-crystallized salts.

 

Displacement Reactions

Reactions in which one element displaces another from a compound.

 

Fluorescence

Absorption of high energy radiation by a substance and subsequent emission of visible light.

Gel

Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid, a semirigid solid.

Reaction Quotient

The mass action expression under any set of conditions (not necessarily equlibrium), its magnitude relative to K determines the direction in which the reaction must occur to establish equilibrium.

Specific Gravity

The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water.

Condensed Phases

The liquid and solid phases, phases in which particles interact strongly.

Dipole Moment

The product of the distance separating opposite charges of equal magnitude of the charge, a measure of the polarity of a bond or molecule, a measured dipole moment refers to the dipole moment of an entire molecule.

Radioactive Dating

Method of dating ancient objects by determining the ratio of amounts of mother and daughter nuclides present in an object and relating the ratio to the object?s age via half-life calculations.

DP number

The degree of polymerization, the average number of monomer units per polymer unit.