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A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

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Photon

A packet of light or electromagnetic radiation, also called quantum of light.

 

Sigma Bonds

Bonds resulting from the head-on overlap of atomic orbitals, in which the region of electron sharing is along and (cylindrically) symmetrical to the imaginary line connecting the bonded atoms.

Electrical Conductivity

Ability to conduct electricity.

Kinetic Energy

Energy that matter processes by virtue of its motion.

Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell

Fuel cell in which hydrogen is the fuel (reducing agent) and oxygen is the oxidizing agent.

 

Denatured

A commercial term used to describe ethanol that has been rendered unfit for human consumption because of the addition of harmful ingredients to make it sales tax-expempt.

 

Salinometer

An instrument for measuring the amount of salt in a solution. Also,"salimeter, salometer."

Law of Combining Volumes (Gay-Lussac's Law)

At constant temperature and pressure, the volumes of reacting gases (and any gaseous products) can be expressed as ratios of small whole numbers.

 

Contact Process

Industrial process by which sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid are produced from sulfur dioxide.

Weak Field Ligand

A Ligand that exerts a weak crystal or ligand field and ge- nerally forms high spin complexes with metals.