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A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

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Dextrorotatory

Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light clockwise, also called dextro.

Entropy

A thermodynamic state or property that measures the degree of disorder or randomness of a system.

Paramagnetism

Attraction toward a magnetic field, stronger than diamagnetism, but still weak compared to ferromagnetism.

Outer Orbital Complex

Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals in the outermost (occupied) shell in hybridization.

Bonding Pair

Pair of electrons involved in a covalent bond.

Low Spin Complex

Crystal field designation for an inner orbital complex, contains electrons paired t2g orbitals before eg orbitals are occupied in octahedral complexes.

Ionization Constant

Equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak electrolyte.

Ternary Acid

A ternary compound containing H, O, and another element, often a nonmetal.

Cohesive Forces

All the forces of attraction among particles of a liquid.

Percent Composition

The mass percent of each element in a compound.

Potential Energy

Energy that matter possesses by virtue of its position, condition or composition.

Denatured

A commercial term used to describe ethanol that has been rendered unfit for human consumption because of the addition of harmful ingredients to make it sales tax-expempt.

 

Electrochemistry

Study of chemical changes produced by electrical current and the production of electricity by chemical reactions.

Chain Termination Step

The combination of two radicals, which removes the reactive species that propagate the change reaction.

Electrodes

Surfaces upon which oxidation and reduction half-reactions, occur in electrochemical cells.

Binding Energy (nuclear binding energy)

The energy equivalent (E = mc^2) of the mass deficiency of an atom.  where: E = is the energy in joules, m is the mass in kilograms, and c is the speed of light in m/s^2

Meniscus

The shape assumed by the surface of a liquid in a cylindrical container.

Formula Weight

The mass of one formula unit of a substance in atomic mass units.

 

Explosive

A chemical or compound that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release or pressure, gas, heat and light when subjected to sudden shock, pressure, high temperature or applied potential.

Pairing Energy

Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.