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A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings at constant volume.

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Reverse Osmosis

Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.

Allotropic Modifications (Allotropes)

Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

Equivalence Point

The point at which chemically equivalent amounts of reactants have reacted.

Electrode Potentials

Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.

Mass Number

The sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in an atom, an integer.

Oxidation-reduction Reactions

Reactions in which oxidation and reduction occur, also called redox reactions.

Saccharic acid

A white, needlelike, crystalline, water-soluble solid or syrup, C6H10O8, usually made by the oxidation of cane sugar, glucose, or starch by nitric acid. Also called "Glucaric acid."

Free Radical

A highly reactive chemical species carrying no charge and having a single unpaired electron in an orbital.

Reaction Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among substances as they participate in chemical reactions.

Geometrical Isomers

Compounds with different arrangements of groups on either side of a bond with restricted rotation, such as a double bond or a single bond in a ring, for example cis-trans isomers of certain alkenes. Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other, also known as position isomers.