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A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings at constant volume.

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  • Varieties of garnet minerals

    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

  • Chemical Safety

    People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car. This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is...

  • Interesting facts about metals

    Metals have been used by people since ancient times. All the time the process of obtaining them was improved, useful alloys of various metals appeared. Let’s look at interesting facts about metals.

  • Diamonds Are Forever

    Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?

  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...



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Alkynes

Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds.

Gamma Ray

High energy electromagnetic radiation. A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x-ray radiation, except that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom and has a higher energy. Energywise, very similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate from outer space.

Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, there is no net change in concentrations of reactants or products while a system is at equilibrium.

Electron Affinity

The amount of energy absorbed in the process in which an electron is added to a neutral isolated gaseous atom to form a gaseous ion with a 1- charge, has a negative value if energy is released.

Radioactivity

The spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei.

Disproportionation Reactions

Redox reactions in which the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent are the same species.

Substance

Any kind of matter all specimens of which have the same chemical composition and physical properties.

 

Eutrophication

The undesirable overgrowth of vegetation caused by high concentrates of plant nutrients in bodies of water.

van der Waals' Equation

An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.

Donor Atom

A ligand atom whose electrons are shared with a Lewis acid.