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A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings at constant volume.

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Limiting Reactant

Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.

Conduction Band

A partially filled band or a band of vacant energy levels just higher in energy than a filled band, a band within which, or into which, electrons must be promoted to allow electrical conduction to occur in a solid.

Octahedral

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and six atoms at the corners of a octahedron.

Atom

The smallest particle of an element.

Nuclear Reaction

Involves a change in the composition of a nucleus and can evolve or absorb an extraordinarily large amount of energy.

Integrated Rate Equation

An equation giving the concentration of a reactant remaining after a specified time, has different mathematical form for different orders of reactants.

Rate of Reaction

Change in the concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.

Amine Complexes

Complex species that contain ammonia molecules bonded to metal ions.

Molarity

Number of moles of solute per litre of solution.

Absorption Spectrum

Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from transitions from lower to higher energy states. An absorption spectrum is the inverse of an emission spectrum.