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The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the applied pressure, also the condensation point

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Primary Standard

A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.

Hard Water

Water containing Fe3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, which forms precipates with soap.

Temperature

A measure of the intensity of heat, i.e. the hotness or coldness of a sample. or object.

Rate of Reaction

Change in the concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.

Electrical Conductivity

Ability to conduct electricity.

Ideal Solution

A solution that obeys Raoult's Law exactly.

Acid

A substance that produces H+(aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong acids ionize completely or almost completely in dilute aqueous solution. Weak acids ionize only slightly. Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic.

Electrodes

Surfaces upon which oxidation and reduction half-reactions, occur in electrochemical cells.

S Orbital

A spherically symmetrical atomic orbital, one per energy level.

Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.