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The increase in the boiling point of a solvent caused by the dissolution of a nonvolatile solute.

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Electronic Geometry

The geometric arrangement of orbitals containing the shared and unshared electron pairs surrounding the central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

Suspension

A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles settle out of solvent-like phase some time after their introduction.

Liquid Aerosol

Colloidal suspension of liquid in gas.

Hard Water

Water containing Fe3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, which forms precipates with soap.

Oxide

A binary compound of oxygen.

Low Spin Complex

Crystal field designation for an inner orbital complex, contains electrons paired t2g orbitals before eg orbitals are occupied in octahedral complexes.

Disproportionation Reactions

Redox reactions in which the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent are the same species.

Saponification

Hydrolysis of esters in the presence of strong soluable bases.

Control Rods

Rods of materials such as cadmium or boron steel that act as neutron obsorbers (not merely moderaters) used in nuclear reactors to control neutron fluxes and therfore rates of fission.

Heteronuclear

Consisting of different elements.