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The increase in the boiling point of a solvent caused by the dissolution of a nonvolatile solute.

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Solvent

The dispersing medium of a solution.

Canal Ray

Stream of positively charged particles (cations) that moves toward the negative electrode in cathode ray tubes, observed to pass through canals in the negative electrode.

Chemical Periodicity

The variations in properties of elements with their position in the periodic table.

Hydration

Reaction of a substance with water.

Doublet

Two peaks or bands of about equal intensity appearing close together on a spectrogram.

Emulsifying Agent

A sustance that coats the particles of the dispersed phase and prevents coagulation of colloidal particles, an emulsifier.

Polymer

A large molecule consisting of chains or rings of linked monomer units, usually characterized by high melting and boiling points.

Third Law of Thermodynamics

The entropy of a hypothetical pure, perfect, crystalline sustance at absolute zero temperature is zero.

Salicylaldehyde

An oily, slightly water-soluble liquid, C7H6O2, having an almondlike odor: used chiefly in perfumery and in the synthesis of coumarin.

Hydrocarbons

Compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen.

Fluids

Substances that flow freely, gases and liquids.

Actinides

Elements 89 to 103 (between lawrencium and actinium) on the periodic table. Only the first four have been found in nature in appreciable amounts. The remainder have been produced synthetically.

Half-Cell

Compartment in which the oxidation or reduction half-reaction occurs in a voltaic cell.

London Forces

Very weak and very short-range attractive forces between short-lived temporary (induced) dipoles, also called dispersion Forces.

Crystal Field Stabilization Energy

A measure of the net energy of stabilization gained by a metal ion's nonbonding d electrons as a result of complex formation.

Vapor

A gas formed by boiling or evaporating a liquid.

Shielding Effect

Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.

Specific Heat

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.

Photon

A packet of light or electromagnetic radiation, also called quantum of light.

 

Half-Reaction

Either the oxidation part or the reduction part of a redox reaction.