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The increase in the boiling point of a solvent caused by the dissolution of a nonvolatile solute.

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Crystal Field Theory

Theory of bonding in transition metal complexes in which ligands and metal ions are treated as point charges, a purely ionic model, ligand point charges represent the crystal (electrical) field perturbing the metal?s d orbitals containing nonbonding electrons.

Coke

An impure form of carbon obtained by destructive distillation of coal or petroleum.

Photochemical Oxidants

Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants and animals.

Emission Spectrum

Spectrum associated with emission of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from electronic transitions from higher to lower energy states.

 

Foam

Colloidal suspension of a gas in a liquid.

Second Law of Thermodynamics

The universe tends toward a state of greater diorder in spontaneous processes.

Free Energy Change

The indicator of spontaneity of a process at constnt T and P. If delta-G is negative, the process is spontaneous.

Common Ion Effect

Suppression of ionization of a weak electrolyte by the presence in the same solution of a strong electrolyte containing one of the same ions as the weak electrolyte.

Addition Reaction

A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).

S Orbital

A spherically symmetrical atomic orbital, one per energy level.

Polydentate

Refers to ligands with more than one donor atom.

Square Planar

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and four atoms at the corners of a square.

Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.

Periodic Table

An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that also emphasizes periodicity.

Reversible Reaction

Reactions that do not go to completion and occur in both the forward and reverse direction.

Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

Molecular Orbital Theory

A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular orbitals.

Periodicity

Regular periodic variations of properties of elements with atomic number (and position in the periodic table).

Primary Voltaic Cells

Voltaic cells that cannot be recharged, no further chemical reaction is possible once the reactants are consumed.

D -Transition elements (metals)

B Group elements except IIB in the periodic table, sometimes called simply transition elements EX. Fe, Ni, Cu, Ti .
For further information see Metals.