The increase in the boiling point of a solvent caused by the dissolution of a nonvolatile solute.
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Crystal Field Theory
Theory of bonding in transition metal complexes in which ligands and metal ions are treated as point charges, a purely ionic model, ligand point charges represent the crystal (electrical) field perturbing the metal?s d orbitals containing nonbonding electrons.
An impure form of carbon obtained by destructive distillation of coal or petroleum.
Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants and animals.
Spectrum associated with emission of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from electronic transitions from higher to lower energy states.
Colloidal suspension of a gas in a liquid.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
The universe tends toward a state of greater diorder in spontaneous processes.
Free Energy Change
The indicator of spontaneity of a process at constnt T and P. If delta-G is negative, the process is spontaneous.
Common Ion Effect
Suppression of ionization of a weak electrolyte by the presence in the same solution of a strong electrolyte containing one of the same ions as the weak electrolyte.
A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).
A spherically symmetrical atomic orbital, one per energy level.
Refers to ligands with more than one donor atom.
A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and four atoms at the corners of a square.
A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.
An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that also emphasizes periodicity.
Reactions that do not go to completion and occur in both the forward and reverse direction.
Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.
Molecular Orbital Theory
A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular orbitals.
Regular periodic variations of properties of elements with atomic number (and position in the periodic table).
Primary Voltaic Cells
Voltaic cells that cannot be recharged, no further chemical reaction is possible once the reactants are consumed.
D -Transition elements (metals)
B Group elements except IIB in the periodic table, sometimes called simply transition elements EX. Fe, Ni, Cu, Ti .
For further information see Metals.