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Any of a group of dyes having a molecular structure related to that of xanthene in which the aromatic (C6H4) groups are the chromophore.

 

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Enantiomer

One of the two mirror-image forms of an optically active molecule.

Linear Accelerator

A device used for accelerating charged particles along a straight line path.

Water Equivalent

The amount of water that would absorb the same amount of heat as the calorimeter per degree temperature increase.

Colloid

A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles do not settle out.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Chemical Kinetics

The study of rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions and of the factors on which they depend.

Absorption Spectrum

Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from transitions from lower to higher energy states. An absorption spectrum is the inverse of an emission spectrum.

Catalyst

A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed itself in the reaction.
A substance that alters (usually increases) the rate at which a reaction occurs.

Primary Standard

A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.

Complex Ions

Ions resulting from the formation of coordinate covalent bonds between simple ions and other ions or molecules.