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Equation for a chemical reaction written to show the predominant form of all species in aqueous solution or in contact with water.

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Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among elements and compounds as they undergo chemical changes.

Heat of Vaporization

The amount of heat required to vaporize one gram of a liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of vaporization is the amount of heat required to vaporize one mole of liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature and usually expressed ion kJ/mol.

Nernst Equation

Corrects standard electrode potentials for nonstandard conditions.

van der Waals' Equation

An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.

Chain Reaction

A reaction that, once initiated, sustains itself and expands. This is a reaction in which reactive species, such as radicals, are produced in more than one step. These reactive species, radicals, propagate the chain reaction.

 

Dipole Moment

The product of the distance separating opposite charges of equal magnitude of the charge, a measure of the polarity of a bond or molecule, a measured dipole moment refers to the dipole moment of an entire molecule.

Alkylbenzene

A compound containing an alkyl group bonded to a benzene ring.

Barometer

A device for measuring pressure.

Electrode Potentials

Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.

Fluorescence

Absorption of high energy radiation by a substance and subsequent emission of visible light.