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Equation for a chemical reaction written to show the predominant form of all species in aqueous solution or in contact with water.

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Actual Yield

Amount of a specified pure product actually obtained from a given reaction. Compare with Theoretical Yield.

Electromotive Series

The relative order of tendencies for elements and their simple ions to act as oxidizing or reducing agents, also called the activity series.

Nonbonding Orbital

A molecular orbital derived only from an atomic orbital of one atom, lends neither stability nor instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons.

Joule

A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2 which is also 0.2390 calorie.

Equilibrium Constant

A quantity that characterizes the position of equilibrium for a reversible reaction, its magnitude is equal to the mass action expression at equilibrium. K varies with temperature.

Activity of a component of ideal mixture

A dimensionless quantity whose magnitude is: equal to molar concentration in an ideal solution, equal to partial pressure in an ideal gas mixture, and defined as 1 for pure solids or liquids.

Hydrate

A solid compound that contains a definite percentage of bound water.

Insoluble Compound

A very slightly soluble compound.

Nonelectrolyte

A substance whose aqueous solutions do not conduct electricity.

Radiation

High energy particles or rays emitted during the nuclear decay processes.

Molecular Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) around a central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

Half-Cell

Compartment in which the oxidation or reduction half-reaction occurs in a voltaic cell.

Electronic Geometry

The geometric arrangement of orbitals containing the shared and unshared electron pairs surrounding the central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

Actinides

Elements 89 to 103 (between lawrencium and actinium) on the periodic table. Only the first four have been found in nature in appreciable amounts. The remainder have been produced synthetically.

Salicylaldehyde

An oily, slightly water-soluble liquid, C7H6O2, having an almondlike odor: used chiefly in perfumery and in the synthesis of coumarin.

Temperature

A measure of the intensity of heat, i.e. the hotness or coldness of a sample. or object.

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory

Assumes that electron pairs are arranged around the central element of a molecule or polyatomic ion so that there is maximum separation (and minimum repulsion) among regions of high electron density.

 

Ionic Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) about the central atom of a polyatomic ion.

Electrochemistry

Study of chemical changes produced by electrical current and the production of electricity by chemical reactions.

Primary Voltaic Cells

Voltaic cells that cannot be recharged, no further chemical reaction is possible once the reactants are consumed.