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Equation for a chemical reaction written to show the predominant form of all species in aqueous solution or in contact with water.

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Spectrochemical Series

Arrangement of ligands in order of increasing ligand field strength.

Capillary Action

The drawing of a liquid up the inside of a small-bore tube when adhesive forces exceed cohesive forces, or the depression of the surface of the liquid when cohesive forces exceed the adhesive forces.

Disproportionation Reactions

Redox reactions in which the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent are the same species.

Bond Energy

The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds of a given kind (in gas phase).The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds in a substance, dissociating the sustance in the gaseous state into atoms of its elements in the gaseous state.

Continuous Spectrum

Spectrum that contains all wave-lengths in a specified region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Rate of Reaction

Change in the concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.

Oxidation Numbers

Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

Kinetic Energy

Energy that matter processes by virtue of its motion.

Molarity

Number of moles of solute per litre of solution.