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Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.

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yttrium

A rare trivalent metallic element, found in gadolinite and other minerals. Symbol: Y, at. wt.: 88.905, at. no.: 39, sp. gr.: 4.47. Cf."rare-earth element."

Yttrium has a silver-metallic luster and is relatively stable in air unless finely divided. Turnings of the metal, however, ignite in air if their temperature exceeds 400oC. Yttrium oxide is one of the most important compounds of yttrium and accounts for the largest use. It is widely used in making YVO4 europium, and Y2O3 europium phosphors to give the red color in color television tubes.

Heat of Fusion

The amount of heat required to melt one gram of solid at its melting point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of fusion is the amount of heat required to melt one mole of a solid at its melting point with no change in temperature and is usually expressed in kJ/mol.

End Point

The point at which an indicator changes colour and a titration is stopped.

Hydrolysis

The reaction of a substance with water or its ions.

Ideal Gas Law

The product of pressure and the volume of an ideal gas is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas and the absolute temperature.

Condensed Phases

The liquid and solid phases, phases in which particles interact strongly.

Activation Energy

Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

Quantum Mechanics

Mathematical method of treating particles on the basis of quantum theory, which assumes that energy (of small particles) is not infinitely divisible.

Ampere

Unit of electrical current, one ampere equals one coulomb per second.

 

Distillation

The separation of a liquid mixture into its components on the basis of differences in boiling points. The process in which components of a mixture are separated by boiling away the more volitile liquid.