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Liquids that, when cooled, apparently solidify but actually continue to flow very slowly under the influence of gravity e.g glass.

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Atmosphere

A unit of pressure, the pressure that will support a column of mercury 760 mm high at 0 °C.

yttrium

A rare trivalent metallic element, found in gadolinite and other minerals. Symbol: Y, at. wt.: 88.905, at. no.: 39, sp. gr.: 4.47. Cf."rare-earth element."

Yttrium has a silver-metallic luster and is relatively stable in air unless finely divided. Turnings of the metal, however, ignite in air if their temperature exceeds 400oC. Yttrium oxide is one of the most important compounds of yttrium and accounts for the largest use. It is widely used in making YVO4 europium, and Y2O3 europium phosphors to give the red color in color television tubes.

Ground State

The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.

Half-Life

The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s). The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.

Reaction Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among substances as they participate in chemical reactions.

Heat of Crystallization

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

Dubnium

Discovered : at both Berkeley, California, USA, and Dubna, near Moscow, Russia in 1970. Description:A highly radioactive metal which does not occur naturally, and of which only a few atoms have ever been made. It is of research interest only. Origin:The element is named after the Russian town of Dubna.

Spectral Line

Any of a number of lines corresponding to definite wavelengths of an atomic emission or absorption spectrum, represents the energy difference between two energy levels.

 

Enzyme

A protein that acts as a catalyst in biological systems.

Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.