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A reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms is replaced by another atom or group of atoms.

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    One of the most interesting and obvious chemical experiments is the experiment on the interaction of copper sulfate and calcium carbonate. The latter is contained in the shell of a simple egg, but copper sulphate should be searched in a chemical reagent store. This experience is simple, but...

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Oxidation Numbers

Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

Total Ionic Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction written to show the predominant form of all species in aqueous solution or in contact with water.

Vapor

A gas formed by boiling or evaporating a liquid.

Standard Electrode Potential

By convention, potential, Eo, of a half-reaction as a reduction relative to the standard hydrogen electrode when all species are present at unit activity.

 

A brief history of dyeing fabrics

 Dyeing fabrics is giving the fibers a homogeneous color that has a certain degree of strength. The methods of dyeing are very diverse, depending on the properties of the dyes and the dyed fibers.

Film badge

A small patch of photographic film worn on clothing to detect and measure accumulated incident ionizing radiation.

End Point

The point at which an indicator changes colour and a titration is stopped.

Reaction Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among substances as they participate in chemical reactions.

Heat Capacity

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a body (of any mass) one degree Celsius.

Amino Acid

Compound containing both an amino and a carboxylic acid group.The --NH2 group.