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A reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms is replaced by another atom or group of atoms.

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  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

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    Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.

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    One of the most interesting and obvious chemical experiments is the experiment on the interaction of copper sulfate and calcium carbonate. The latter is contained in the shell of a simple egg, but copper sulphate should be searched in a chemical reagent store. This experience is simple, but...

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Fluids

Substances that flow freely, gases and liquids.

Crystalline Solid

A solid characterized by a regular, ordered arrangement of particles.

Covalent Bond

Chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two atoms.

Frasch Process

Method by which elemental sulfur is mined or extracted. Sulfur is melted with superheated water (at 170°C under high pressure) and forced to the surface of the earth as a slurry.

 

Lanthanide Contraction

A decrease in the radii of the elements following the lanthanides compared to what would be expected if there were no f-transition metals.

Electronic Transition

The transfer of an electron from one energy level to another.

Amorphous Solid

A noncrystalline solid with no well-defined ordered structure.

Solvent

The dispersing medium of a solution.

Chemical Equation

Description of a chemical reaction by placing the formulas of the reactants on the left and the formulas of products on the right of an arrow.

Diamagnetism

Weak repulsion by a magnetic field.