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A reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms is replaced by another atom or group of atoms.

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Nitrogen Cycle

The complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is slowly but continually recycled in the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.

 

Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types.

The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The device is based on a complex process of "tunneling" electrons between the material and the tip of a probe.

Endothermic

Describes processes that absorb heat energy.

Donor Atom

A ligand atom whose electrons are shared with a Lewis acid.

Ionic Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) about the central atom of a polyatomic ion.

Can water burn?

It’s known that water consists of atoms of molecules of oxygen and hydrogen. Since any compound with oxygen indicates the ability of the substance to burn, water is no exception. Thus, water has a surprising property of already "burnt out" compound.

Standard Entropy

The absolute entropy of a substance in its standard state at 298 K.

Plasma

A physical state of matter which exists at extremely high temperatures in which all molecules are dissociated and most atoms are ionized.

Hydrolysis Constant

An equilibrium constant for a hydrolysis reaction.

Differential Thermometer

A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.