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The direct vaporization of a sold by heating without passing through the liquid state.

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Electromagnetic Radiation

Energy that is propagated by means of electric and magnetic fields that oscillate in directions perpendicular to the direction of travel of the energy.

Inert s-pair Effect

Characteristic of the post-transition minerals, tendency of the outermost s electrons to remain nonionized or un shared in compounds.

Moderator

A substance such as hydrogen, deuterium, oxygen or paraffin capable of slowing fast nuetrons upon collision.

Atom

The smallest particle of an element.

Mass Action Expression

For a reversible reaction, aA + bB cC + dD the product of the concentrations of the products (species on the right), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation, divided by the product of the concentrations of reactants (species on the left), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation. At equilibrium the mass action expression is equal to K, at other times it is Q.[C]c[D]d [A]a[B]b = Q, or at equilibrium K.

Indicators

For acid-base titrations, organic compounds that exhibit different colors in solutions of different acidities, used to determine the point at which reaction between two solutes is complete.

Molecular Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) around a central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

Coulometry

The quantitative application of Faraday's Law to the analysis of materials. The current and time are the usual variables measured.

Electronegativity

A measure of the relative tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself when chemically combined with another atom.

Sigma Orbital

Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.