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The direct vaporization of a sold by heating without passing through the liquid state.

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    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

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    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...

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Thermodynamics

The study of the energy transfers accompanying physical and chemical processes.

Nonelectrolyte

A substance whose aqueous solutions do not conduct electricity.

Faraday

One faraday of electricity corresponds to the charge on 6.022 x 1023 electrons, or 96,487.301 coulombs.

Adhesive Forces

Forces of attraction between a liquid and another surface.

Lanthanide Contraction

A decrease in the radii of the elements following the lanthanides compared to what would be expected if there were no f-transition metals.

Linkage Isomers

Isomers in which a particular ligand bonds to a metal ion through different donor atoms.

 

Polar Bond

Covalent bond in which there is an unsymmetrical distribution of electron density.

Colligative Properties

Physical properties of solutions that depend upon the number but not the kind of solute particles present.

Doublet

Two peaks or bands of about equal intensity appearing close together on a spectrogram.

Absolute Zero

The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.