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The direct vaporization of a sold by heating without passing through the liquid state.

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Fractional Distillation

The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.

Combination Reaction

Reaction in which two substances (elements or compounds) combine to form one compound.

Fuel Cells

Voltaic cells in which the reactants (usually gases) are supplied continuously.
A voltaic cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidizing agent directly into electriacl energy on a continuous basis.

Periodicity

Regular periodic variations of properties of elements with atomic number (and position in the periodic table).

Mass

A measure of the amount of matter in an object. Mass is usually measured in grams or kilograms.

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory

Assumes that electron pairs are arranged around the central element of a molecule or polyatomic ion so that there is maximum separation (and minimum repulsion) among regions of high electron density.

 

Active Metal

Metal with low ionization energy that loses electrons readily to form cations.

Distilland

The material in a distillation apparatus that is to be distilled.

Viscosity

Resistance offered by the molecules of a liquid to flow is termed as viscosity.

Lewis Dot Formula (Electron Dot Formula)

Representation of the core of a molecule, ion or formula unit by showing atomic symbols and only outer shell electrons.