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The direct vaporization of a sold by heating without passing through the liquid state.

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Dispersing Medium

The solvent-like phase in a colloid.

End Point

The point at which an indicator changes colour and a titration is stopped.

Spectrum

Display of component wavelengths (colours) of electromagnetic radiation.

Polymerization

The combination of many small molecules to form large molecules.

Hydrometer

A device used to measure the densities of liquids and solutions.

Heat of Vaporization

The amount of heat required to vaporize one gram of a liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of vaporization is the amount of heat required to vaporize one mole of liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature and usually expressed ion kJ/mol.

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Flotation

Method by which hydrophobic (water-repelling) particles of an ore are separated from hydrophilic (water-attracting) particles of a metallurgical pretreatment process.

Zone Refining

A method of purifying a bar of metal by passing it through an induction heater, this causes impurties to move along a melted portion. This method applies the fact when a metal crystallizes on cooling, impurities are automatically expelled as they do not form part of the crystal.

Fluids

Substances that flow freely, gases and liquids.