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Compounds that contain the same number of the same kinds of atoms in different geometric arrangements.

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Chemical Periodicity

The variations in properties of elements with their position in the periodic table.

Ioniztion

The breaking up of a compound into separate ions.

Critical Temperature

The temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied, the temperature above which a substance cannot exhibit distinct gas and liquid phases.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Nitric Acid

HNO3: A strong acid, it is toxic and can cause severe burns. Transparent colorless or yellowish, fuming, suffocating, caustic and corrosive liquid. Nitric acid boiling point is 83C. A 70 percent solution is used in the S.S.E. laboratory for junction depth measurements. Nitric acid is also present in the metal etch solution used for the Aluminum etch procedure.

Gangue

Sand, rock, and other impurities surrounding the mineral of interest in an ore.

Oxidizing Agent

The substance that oxidizes another substance and is reduced.

Bomb Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings at constant volume.

Amphiprotism

Ability of a substance to exhibit amphiprotism by accepting donated protons.

Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings.