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Compounds that contain the same number of the same kinds of atoms in different geometric arrangements.

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Dimer

Molecule formed by combination of two smaller (identical) molecules.

Addition Reaction

A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).

Insoluble Compound

A very slightly soluble compound.

Ionization Energy

The minimum amount of energy required to remove the most loosely held electron of an isolated gaseous atom or ion.

Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, there is no net change in concentrations of reactants or products while a system is at equilibrium.

Second Law of Thermodynamics

The universe tends toward a state of greater diorder in spontaneous processes.

Cell Potential

Potential difference, Ecell, between oxidation and reduction half-cells under nonstandard conditions.

 

Percentage Ionization

The percentage of the weak electrolyte that ionizes in a solution of given concentration.

Inner Orbital Complex

Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals for one shell inside the outermost occupied shell in its hybridization.

Natural Radioactivity

Spontaneous decomposition of an atom.