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Ligand that exerts a strong crystal or ligand electrical field and generally forms low spin complexes with metal ions when possible.

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Voltaic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which spontaneous chemical reactions produce electricity, also called galvanic cells.

 

Activity of a component of ideal mixture

A dimensionless quantity whose magnitude is: equal to molar concentration in an ideal solution, equal to partial pressure in an ideal gas mixture, and defined as 1 for pure solids or liquids.

Group

A vertical column in the periodic table, also called a family.

Polarization

The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.

Inert s-pair Effect

Characteristic of the post-transition minerals, tendency of the outermost s electrons to remain nonionized or un shared in compounds.

D-Orbitals

Beginning in the third energy level, aset of five degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s and p orbitals of the same energy level.

 

Lewis Base

Any species that can make available a share in an electron pair.

Secondary Standard

A solution that has been titrated against a primary standard. A standard solution is a secondary standard.

 

Binary Acid

A binary compound in which H is bonded to one or more of the more electronegative nonmetals.

Atomic Mass Unit (amu)

One twelfth of a mass of an atom of the carbon-12 isotope, a unit used for stating atomic and formula weights, also called dalton.