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A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and four atoms at the corners of a square.

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Saccharic acid

A white, needlelike, crystalline, water-soluble solid or syrup, C6H10O8, usually made by the oxidation of cane sugar, glucose, or starch by nitric acid. Also called "Glucaric acid."

Born-Haber Cycle

A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

Indicators

For acid-base titrations, organic compounds that exhibit different colors in solutions of different acidities, used to determine the point at which reaction between two solutes is complete.

Oil

Liquid triester of glycerol and unsaturated fatty acids.

Coordination Isomers

Isomers involving exchanges of ligands between complex cation and complex anion of the same compound.

Covalent Bond

Chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two atoms.

Half-Life

The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s). The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.

Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons that contain double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.

Emission Spectrum

Spectrum associated with emission of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from electronic transitions from higher to lower energy states.

 

Halogens

Group VIIA elements: F, Cl, Br, I