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A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and four atoms at the corners of a square.

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London Forces

Very weak and very short-range attractive forces between short-lived temporary (induced) dipoles, also called dispersion Forces.

Condensed States

The solid and liquid states.

Endothermic

Describes processes that absorb heat energy.

Square Planar Complex

Complex in which the metal is in the center of a square plane, with ligand donor atoms at each of the four corners.

Mole Fraction

The number of moles of a component of a mixture divided by the total number of moles in the mixture.

 

Dynamic Equilibrium

An equilibrium in which processes occur continuously, with no net change. When two (or more) processes occur at the same rate so that no net change occurs.

Osmosis

The process by which solvent molecules pass through a semipermable membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated solution.

 

Alkyl Group

A group of atoms derived from an alkane by the removal of one hydrogen atom.

Lewis Base

Any species that can make available a share in an electron pair.

Dextrorotatory

Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light clockwise, also called dextro.