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A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and four atoms at the corners of a square.

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Film badge

A small patch of photographic film worn on clothing to detect and measure accumulated incident ionizing radiation.

Atom

The smallest particle of an element.

Bubbles

Have you ever noticed that soap bubbles go up in winter and fall down in summer? The reason is that warm air is lighter than cold. And in winter the difference between the air temperature in the room (especially near the windows) and the one you exhale into the bubble is enough to overcome the heaviness of its shell.

Calorie

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. 1 calorie = 4.184 joules.

Conjugated Double Bonds

Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.

Avogadro's Number

The number (6.022x10^23) of atoms, molecules or particles found in exactly 1 mole of substance.

Electronegativity

A measure of the relative tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself when chemically combined with another atom.

Metalloids

Elements with properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals: B, Al, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At.

Molecular Orbital

An orbit resulting from overlap and mixing of atomic orbitals on different atoms. An MO belongs to the molecule as a whole.

Hydrophilic Colloids

Colloidal particles that repel water molecules.