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A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and four atoms at the corners of a square.

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Activation Energy

Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

Method of Initial Rates

Method of determining the rate-law expression by carrying out a reaction with different initial concentrations and analyzing the resultant changes in initial rates.

Amorphous Solid

A noncrystalline solid with no well-defined ordered structure.

Salt and its use in everyday life

Cooking salt is a product that is available in every kitchen, and it’s not as simple as it seems. The history of this product shows that it was valued like gold.

Frequency

The number of repeating corresponding points on a wave that pass a given observation point per unit time.

Enthalpy

The heat content of a specific amount of substance, defined as E= PV.

Electromotive Series

The relative order of tendencies for elements and their simple ions to act as oxidizing or reducing agents, also called the activity series.

Lead Storage Battery

Secondary voltaic cell used in most automobiles.

Buffer Solution

Solution that resists change in pH, contains either a weak acid and a soluble ionic salt of the acid or a weak base and a soluble ionic salt of the base.

Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP)

A written program developed and implemented by an employer designating proceedures, equipment, personal protective equipment, and work practices that are capable of protecting employees from the health hazards presented by hazardous chemicals usid in that particular workplace.