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A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and four atoms at the corners of a square.

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Surface Tension

It is the force in dynes acting along the surface of the liquid 1cm in length and perpendicular to it.

Linkage Isomers

Isomers in which a particular ligand bonds to a metal ion through different donor atoms.

 

Third Law of Thermodynamics

The entropy of a hypothetical pure, perfect, crystalline sustance at absolute zero temperature is zero.

Mass Spectrometer

An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.

Concentration

Amount of solute per unit volume or mass of solvent or of solution.

Heterogeneous Mixture

A mixture that does not have uniform composition and properties throughout.

Conjugated Double Bonds

Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.

Zone Refining

A method of purifying a bar of metal by passing it through an induction heater, this causes impurties to move along a melted portion. This method applies the fact when a metal crystallizes on cooling, impurities are automatically expelled as they do not form part of the crystal.

Standard Molar Enthalphy of Formation

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of one mole of a substance in a specified state from its elements in their standard states.

Handmade crystal glass as a work of art

In order for the colored crystal to open in all its beauty and sparkle with every face natural light is required. Handmade crystal glass has specific tactile and aesthetic properties - it is pleasant to touch, it seems to radiate heat. To appreciate the quality and beauty of such things, of course, it is not enough to look at the picture.