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Complex in which the metal is in the center of a square plane, with ligand donor atoms at each of the four corners.

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yttria

Y2O3: A white, water-insoluble powder, Y2O3, used chiefly in incandescent gas and acetylene mantles.

Isoelectric

Having the same electronic configurations.

Bronsted-Lowry Acid

A proton donor.

Distilland

The material in a distillation apparatus that is to be distilled.

Ionization

In aqueous solution, the process in which a molecular compound reacts with water and forms ions.

Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.

Mass Deficiency

The amount of matter that would be converted into energy if an atom were formed from constituent particles.

Coefficient of expansion

The ratio of the change in length or volumen of a body to the original lengthor volume for a unit change in temperature.

Entropy

A thermodynamic state or property that measures the degree of disorder or randomness of a system.

Osmosis

The process by which solvent molecules pass through a semipermable membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated solution.