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Complex in which the metal is in the center of a square plane, with ligand donor atoms at each of the four corners.

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Supersaturated Solution

A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.

Equilibrium Constant

A quantity that characterizes the position of equilibrium for a reversible reaction, its magnitude is equal to the mass action expression at equilibrium. K varies with temperature.

Canal Ray

Stream of positively charged particles (cations) that moves toward the negative electrode in cathode ray tubes, observed to pass through canals in the negative electrode.

Hydrate Isomers

Isomers of crystalline complexes that differ in whether water is present inside or outside the coordination sphere.

Alkenes (Olefins)

Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.

Ground State

The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.

Polydentate

Refers to ligands with more than one donor atom.

Polarization

The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.

Autoionization

An ionization reaction between identical molecules.

Condensed States

The solid and liquid states.