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Complex in which the metal is in the center of a square plane, with ligand donor atoms at each of the four corners.

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Dosimeter

A small, calibrated electroscope worn by laboratory personnel and designated to detect and measure incident ionizing radiation or chemical exposure.

Pairing Energy

Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.

Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.

Formal Charge

A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion, counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.

Nucleus

The very small, very dense, positively charged center of an atom containing protons and neutrons, as well as other subatomic particles.

Nuclear Reactor

A system in which controlled nuclear fisson reactions generate heat energy on a large scale, which is subsequently converted into electrical energy.

Alcohol

Hydrocarbon derivative containing an --OH group attached to a carbon atom not in an aromatic ring. Alcohols are a class of organic compounds containing the hydroxyl group, OH, attached to a carbon atom.

Lone Pair

Pair of electrons residing on one atom and not shared by other atoms, unshared pair.

Endothermicity

The absorption of heat by a system as the process occurs.

yield

The quantity of product formed by the interaction of two or more substances, generally expressed as a percentage of the quantity obtained to that theoretically obtainable.