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The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.

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Avogadro's Law

At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules.

Lewis Base

Any species that can make available a share in an electron pair.

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Benzene and its derivatives.

Donor Atom

A ligand atom whose electrons are shared with a Lewis acid.

Vapor Pressure

The particle pressure of a vapor at the surface of its parent liquid.

Voltaic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which spontaneous chemical reactions produce electricity, also called galvanic cells.

 

Background Radiation

Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low-level natural radiation form cosmic rays and trace radioactive substances present in our environment.

Reducing Agent

The substance that reduces another substance and is oxidized.

Differential Thermometer

A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.