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The reaction of a substance with the solvent in which it is dissolved.

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Amorphous Solid

A noncrystalline solid with no well-defined ordered structure.

Dipole-dipole Interactions

Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.

Base

A substance that produces OH (aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong soluable bases are soluble in water and are completely dissociated. Weak bases ionize only slightly.

Specific Rate Constant

An experimentally determined (proportionality) constant, which is different for different reactions and which changes only with temperature, k in the rate-law expression: Rate = k [A] x [B]v.

Critical Temperature

The temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied, the temperature above which a substance cannot exhibit distinct gas and liquid phases.

Hydrate Isomers

Isomers of crystalline complexes that differ in whether water is present inside or outside the coordination sphere.

Flammable

A liquid as defined by NFPD and DOT as having a flash point below 37.8°C (100°F).

Matter

Anything that has mass and occupies space.

Chemical Kinetics

The study of rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions and of the factors on which they depend.

Curie (Ci)

The basic unit used to describe the intensity of radioactivity in a sample of material. One curie equals 37 billion disintegrations per second or approximately the amount of radioactivty given off by 1 gram of radium.

Thermonuclear Energy

The energy stored in the nucleus of an atom and released through fission, fusion, or radioactivity. In these processes a small amount of mass is converted to energy according to the relationship E = mc2, where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light.

Coordination Number

In describing crystals, the number of nearest neighbours of an atom or ion. The number of donor atoms coordinated to a metal.

Detergent

A soap-like emulsifer that contains a sulfate, SO3 or a phosphate group instead of a carboxylate group.

Pauli Exclusion Principle

No two electrons in the same atom may have identical sets of four quantum numbers.

Functional Group

A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.

Band

A series of very closely spaced, nearly continuous molecular orbitals that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Zinc

Discovered: known in India and China before 1500 and to the Greeks and Romans before 20 BC as the copper-zinc alloy brass
Origin: The name is derived from the German ‘Zink’.
Atomic no: 30
Mass No: 65
Description: A grey metal with a blue tinge. World production exceeds 7 million tons a year, and it is used to galvanise iron to prevent it rusting. It is also employed in alloys and batteries, and as zinc oxide to stabilise rubber and plastics. Zinc is essential for all living things, and is important for growth and development. The average human body contains about 2.5 grams and takes in about 15 milligrams per day. Some foods have above average levels of zinc, including herring, beef, lamb, sunflower seeds and cheese.

Neutralization

The reaction of an acid with a base to form a salt and water. Usually, the reaction of hydrogen ions with hydrogen ions to form water molecules.

Distillation

The separation of a liquid mixture into its components on the basis of differences in boiling points. The process in which components of a mixture are separated by boiling away the more volitile liquid.

Percentage Ionization

The percentage of the weak electrolyte that ionizes in a solution of given concentration.