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Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.

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Equilibrium Constant

A quantity that characterizes the position of equilibrium for a reversible reaction, its magnitude is equal to the mass action expression at equilibrium. K varies with temperature.

Lead Storage Battery

Secondary voltaic cell used in most automobiles.

Sublimation

The direct vaporization of a sold by heating without passing through the liquid state.

van der Waals' Equation

An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.

Three ways to make patina at home

The first way is ammonia patination. To do this, take a plastic container. Put a couple of paper or ordinary towels at the bottom. Moisten them with ammonia. Then sprinkle with large table salt.

Nernst Equation

Corrects standard electrode potentials for nonstandard conditions.

Primary Voltaic Cells

Voltaic cells that cannot be recharged, no further chemical reaction is possible once the reactants are consumed.

Bomb Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings at constant volume.

Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy

The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.

Oxide

A binary compound of oxygen.