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Bonds resulting from the head-on overlap of atomic orbitals, in which the region of electron sharing is along and (cylindrically) symmetrical to the imaginary line connecting the bonded atoms.

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Enantiomer

One of the two mirror-image forms of an optically active molecule.

Hydrolysis

The reaction of a substance with water or its ions.

Isomorphous

Refers to crystals having the same atomic arrangement.

Haber Process

A process for the catalyzed industrial production of ammonia from N2 and H2 at high temperature and pressure.

Photochemical Oxidants

Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants and animals.

Ideal Solution

A solution that obeys Raoult's Law exactly.

Absolute Zero

The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.

Autoionization

An ionization reaction between identical molecules.

Functional Group

A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.

Dispersing Medium

The solvent-like phase in a colloid.