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Bonds resulting from the head-on overlap of atomic orbitals, in which the region of electron sharing is along and (cylindrically) symmetrical to the imaginary line connecting the bonded atoms.

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Equivalent Weight

An oxidizing or reducing agent, who's mass gains (oxidizing agents) or loses (reducing agents) 6.022 x 1023 electrons in a redox reaction.
The mass of an acid or base that furnishes or reacts with 6.022 x 1023 H3O+ or OH- ions.

Square Planar Complex

Complex in which the metal is in the center of a square plane, with ligand donor atoms at each of the four corners.

Thermodynamics

The study of the energy transfers accompanying physical and chemical processes.

Curie (Ci)

The basic unit used to describe the intensity of radioactivity in a sample of material. One curie equals 37 billion disintegrations per second or approximately the amount of radioactivty given off by 1 gram of radium.

Organic Chemistry

The chemistry of substances that contain carbon-hydrogen bonds.

Heat Capacity

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a body (of any mass) one degree Celsius.

Flux

A substance added to react with the charge, or a product of its reduction, in metallurgy, usually added to lower a melting point.

Geometrical Isomers

Compounds with different arrangements of groups on either side of a bond with restricted rotation, such as a double bond or a single bond in a ring, for example cis-trans isomers of certain alkenes. Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other, also known as position isomers.

Faraday

One faraday of electricity corresponds to the charge on 6.022 x 1023 electrons, or 96,487.301 coulombs.

Fractional Distillation

The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.

Coordinate Covalent Bond

A covalent bond in which both shared electrons are donated by the same atom, a bond between a Lewis base and a Lewis acid.

Band Theory of Metals

Theory that accounts for the bonding and properties of metallic solids.

Pauli Exclusion Principle

No two electrons in the same atom may have identical sets of four quantum numbers.

Alkyl Group

A group of atoms derived from an alkane by the removal of one hydrogen atom.

Leclanche Cell

A common type of dry cell.

Pairing Energy

Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.

Artificial Transmutation

An artificially induced nuclear reaction caused by the bombardment of a nucleus with subatomic particiles or small nucei.

Dynamic Equilibrium

An equilibrium in which processes occur continuously, with no net change. When two (or more) processes occur at the same rate so that no net change occurs.

Metallurgy

Refers to the overall processes by which metals are extracted from ores.

Acetic Acid

CA3COOH, clear, colorless liquid, pungent odor. Boiling point 140C, flash point 54C (closed cup), autoignition temperature 38OC.