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Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.

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Critical Pressure

The pressure required to liquefy a gas (vapor) at its critical temperature.

Group

A vertical column in the periodic table, also called a family.

Amphiprotism

Ability of a substance to exhibit amphiprotism by accepting donated protons.

Leclanche Cell

A common type of dry cell.

Atmosphere

A unit of pressure, the pressure that will support a column of mercury 760 mm high at 0 °C.

Octet Rule

Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds, there are some limitations.

Half-Cell

Compartment in which the oxidation or reduction half-reaction occurs in a voltaic cell.

Theoretical Yield

Maximum amount of a specified product that could be obtained from specified amounts of reactants, assuming complete consumption of limiting reactant according to only one reaction and complete recovery of product.

Pairing

A favourable interaction of two electrons with opposite m , values in the same orbital.

Fatty Acids

An aliphatic acid, many can obtained from animal fats.