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Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.

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Molecular Weight

The mass of one molecule of a nonionic substance in atomic mass units.

Dosimeter

A small, calibrated electroscope worn by laboratory personnel and designated to detect and measure incident ionizing radiation or chemical exposure.

Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell

Fuel cell in which hydrogen is the fuel (reducing agent) and oxygen is the oxidizing agent.

 

Metallic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current through a metal or along a metallic surface.

S Orbital

A spherically symmetrical atomic orbital, one per energy level.

pH

Negative logarithm of the concentration (mol/L) of the H3O+[H+] ion, scale is commonly used over a range 0 to 14.

First Law of Thermodynamics

The total amount of energy in the universe is constant (also known as the Law of Conservation of Energy) energy is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions and physical changes.

Weak Field Ligand

A Ligand that exerts a weak crystal or ligand field and ge- nerally forms high spin complexes with metals.

Born-Haber Cycle

A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

Salt Bridge

A U-shaped tube containing electrolyte, which connects two half-cells of a voltaic cell.