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Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.

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Substance

Any kind of matter all specimens of which have the same chemical composition and physical properties.

 

Mother Nuclide

Nuclide that undergoes nuclear decay.

Carbanion

An organic ion carrying a negative charge on a carbon atom.

Formula

Combination of symbols that indicates the chemical composition of a substance.

 

xylidine

Any of six isomeric compounds that have the formula C8H11N, are derivatives of xylene, and resemble aniline: used in dye manufacture.

Semipermable Membrane

A thin partition between two solutions through which certain molecules can pass but others cannot.

Vapor

A gas formed by boiling or evaporating a liquid.

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Greenhouse Effect

Trapping of heat at the surface of the earth by carbon dioxide and water vapour in the atmosphere.

Hard Water

Water containing Fe3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, which forms precipates with soap.