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Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.

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Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

It is impossible to determine accurately both the momentum and position of an electron simultaneously.

Essential Oil

A plant extract that has a distinctive odour or flavour.

Structural Isomers

Compounds that contain the same number of the same kinds of atoms in different geometric arrangements.

PseudobinaryIonic Compounds

Compounds that contain more than two elements but are named like binary compounds.

Cis-Trans Isomerism

A type of geometrical isomerism related to the angles between like ligands.

Monoprotic Acid

Acid that can form only one hydronium ion per molecule, may be strong or weak. Acid that contains one ionizable hydrogen atom per formula unit.

Henry's Law

The pressure of the gas above a solution is proportional to the concentration of the gas in the solution.

Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, there is no net change in concentrations of reactants or products while a system is at equilibrium.

Standard Electrode Potential

By convention, potential, Eo, of a half-reaction as a reduction relative to the standard hydrogen electrode when all species are present at unit activity.

 

Free Radical

A highly reactive chemical species carrying no charge and having a single unpaired electron in an orbital.