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Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.

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Matter

Anything that has mass and occupies space.

Ideal Gas Law

The product of pressure and the volume of an ideal gas is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas and the absolute temperature.

Capillary Action

The drawing of a liquid up the inside of a small-bore tube when adhesive forces exceed cohesive forces, or the depression of the surface of the liquid when cohesive forces exceed the adhesive forces.

Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.

Complex Ions

Ions resulting from the formation of coordinate covalent bonds between simple ions and other ions or molecules.

Molecular Orbital Theory

A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular orbitals.

High Spin Complex

Crystal field designation for an outer orbital complex, all t2g and eg orbitals are singly occupied before any pairing occurs.

Periodicity

Regular periodic variations of properties of elements with atomic number (and position in the periodic table).

Saturated Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. They are also called alkanes or paraffin hydrocarbons.

Catalyst

A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed itself in the reaction.
A substance that alters (usually increases) the rate at which a reaction occurs.