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Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.

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Reverse Osmosis

Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.

Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.

Plasma

A physical state of matter which exists at extremely high temperatures in which all molecules are dissociated and most atoms are ionized.

Amine

Derivatives of ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic groups.

Covalent Bond

Chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two atoms.

Matter

Anything that has mass and occupies space.

Reversible Reaction

Reactions that do not go to completion and occur in both the forward and reverse direction.

Compressed Gas

A gas or mixture of gases having, in a container an absolute pressure exceeding 40 psi at 21.1°C (70°F)

Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy

The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.

Heterocyclic Amine

Amine in which the nitrogen is part of a ring.