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Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.

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Actinides

Elements 89 to 103 (between lawrencium and actinium) on the periodic table. Only the first four have been found in nature in appreciable amounts. The remainder have been produced synthetically.

Rate of Reaction

Change in the concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.

Alkenes (Olefins)

Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.

Reaction Quotient

The mass action expression under any set of conditions (not necessarily equlibrium), its magnitude relative to K determines the direction in which the reaction must occur to establish equilibrium.

Law of Conservation of Energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it may be changed from one form to another.

Element

A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means.

Absorption Spectrum

Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from transitions from lower to higher energy states. An absorption spectrum is the inverse of an emission spectrum.

Spectator Ions

Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.

Condensed Phases

The liquid and solid phases, phases in which particles interact strongly.

Cathodic Protection

Protection of a metal (making ir a cathode) against corrosion by attaching it to a sacrifical anode of a more easily oxidized metal.