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Hydrolysis of esters in the presence of strong soluable bases.

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Clay

A class of silicate and aluminosilicate minerals with sheet-like structures that have enormous surface areas that can absorb large amounts of water.

Critical Point

The combination of critical temperature and critical pressure of a substance.

xylose

A colorless, crystalline pentose sugar, C5H10O5, derived from xylan, straw, corncobs, etc., by treating with heated dilute sulfuric acid, and dehydrating to furfural if stronger acid is used.

Nuclear Binding Energy

Energy equivalent of the mass deficiency, energy released in the formation of an atom from the subatomic particles.

 

Saponification

Hydrolysis of esters in the presence of strong soluable bases.

Double Salt

Solid consisting of two co-crystallized salts.

 

Law of Conservation of Matter

There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction.

Graham's Law

The rates of effusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molecular weights or densities.

Oxidation Numbers

Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

Chain Reaction

A reaction that, once initiated, sustains itself and expands. This is a reaction in which reactive species, such as radicals, are produced in more than one step. These reactive species, radicals, propagate the chain reaction.