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Hydrolysis of esters in the presence of strong soluable bases.

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Bonding Pair

Pair of electrons involved in a covalent bond.

Primary Standard

A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.

Physical Change

A change in which a substance changes from one physical state to another but no substances with different composition are formed. Example Gas to Liquid - Solid.

 

Artificial Transmutation

An artificially induced nuclear reaction caused by the bombardment of a nucleus with subatomic particiles or small nucei.

Exothermicity

The release of heat by a system as a process occurs.

yttrium metal

Any of a subgroup of rare-earth elements, of which the cerium and terbium metals comprise the other two subgroups.

Period

The elements in a horizontal row of the periodic table.

Hydrogen

Discovered : by Henry Cavendish in 1766.
Isolated in London, UK.
Origin : The name is derived from the Greek ‘hydro genes’, meaning water forming.
Description :A colourless, odourless gas that burns and can form an explosive mixture with air. It is currently manufactured from methane gas, but is also produced by the electrolysis of water and aqueous salts. The gas is used to make such key materials as ammonia, cyclohexane and methanol, which are intermediates in the production of fertilisers, plastics and pharmaceuticals. Some see hydrogen gas as the clean fuel of the future - generated from water and returning to water when it is oxidised. Hydrogen-powered fuel cells are increasingly being seen as pollution-free sources of energy.

Distillation

The separation of a liquid mixture into its components on the basis of differences in boiling points. The process in which components of a mixture are separated by boiling away the more volitile liquid.

Viscosity

Resistance offered by the molecules of a liquid to flow is termed as viscosity.

Supercooled Liquids

Liquids that, when cooled, apparently solidify but actually continue to flow very slowly under the influence of gravity e.g glass.

Coulomb

Unit of electrical charge.

Aryl Group

Group of atoms remaining after a hydrogen atom is removed from the aromatic system.

Electron Configuration

Specific distribution of electrons in atomic orbitals of atoms or ions.

Acetic Acid

CA3COOH, clear, colorless liquid, pungent odor. Boiling point 140C, flash point 54C (closed cup), autoignition temperature 38OC.

Periodicity

Regular periodic variations of properties of elements with atomic number (and position in the periodic table).

Anion

A negative ion, an atom or goup of atoms that has gained one or more electrons.

 

Amphiprotism

Ability of a substance to exhibit amphiprotism by accepting donated protons.

Mixture

A sample of matter composed of two or more substances, each of which retains its identity and properties.

Solvent

The dispersing medium of a solution.