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Hydrolysis of esters in the presence of strong soluable bases.

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Dipole-dipole Interactions

Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.

Greenhouse Effect

Trapping of heat at the surface of the earth by carbon dioxide and water vapour in the atmosphere.

Oxidation Numbers

Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

Donor Atom

A ligand atom whose electrons are shared with a Lewis acid.

Gangue

Sand, rock, and other impurities surrounding the mineral of interest in an ore.

Critical Mass

The minimum mass of a particular fissionable nuclide in a given volume required to sustain a nuclear chain reaction.

Lewis Base

Any species that can make available a share in an electron pair.

Law of Definite Proportions (Law of Constant Composition)

The law stating that a pure substance will always have the same percent by weight. Different samples of a pure compound always contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass.

Ioniztion

The breaking up of a compound into separate ions.

Meniscus

The shape assumed by the surface of a liquid in a cylindrical container.