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Covalent bond in which electron density is symmetrically distributed.

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Mixture

A sample of matter composed of two or more substances, each of which retains its identity and properties.

Band of Stability

Band containing nonradioactive nuclides in a plot of number of neutrons versus atomic number.

Dosimeter

A small, calibrated electroscope worn by laboratory personnel and designated to detect and measure incident ionizing radiation or chemical exposure.

Law of Conservation of Energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it may be changed from one form to another.

Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA)

A technique for observing the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermally induced transitions in a material by heating/cooling a sample and comparing its temperature with that of an inert reference material under similar conditions.

Thermodynamics

The study of the energy transfers accompanying physical and chemical processes.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Avogadro's Law

At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules.

Inhibitory Catalyst

An inhibitor, a catalyst that decreases the rate of reaction.

Activation Energy

Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.