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Covalent bond in which electron density is symmetrically distributed.

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Bonding Orbital

A molecular orbit lower in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends stability to a molecule or ion when populated with electron.

First Law of Thermodynamics

The total amount of energy in the universe is constant (also known as the Law of Conservation of Energy) energy is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions and physical changes.

Conjugated Double Bonds

Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.

How to make crystal glass

From history we know that the idea of creating crystal belongs to the British: they were the first to add lead oxides to the charge material, and as a result got glass with unusual “voice”, transparency and sparkling faces. Classical crystal contains 24% of lead oxide, but there are products with a higher content of up to 30%.

Melting Point

The temperature at which liquid and solid coexist in equilibrium, also the freezing point.

Le Chatelier's Principle

States that a system at equilibrium, or striving to attain equilibrium, responds in such a way as to counteract any stress placed upon it.
If a stress (change of conditions) is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that reduces stress.

Peroxide

A compound containing oxygen in the -1 oxidation state. Metal peroxides contain the peroxide ion, O22

Salinometer

An instrument for measuring the amount of salt in a solution. Also,"salimeter, salometer."

Enantiomer

One of the two mirror-image forms of an optically active molecule.

DP number

The degree of polymerization, the average number of monomer units per polymer unit.