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Elements with properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals: B, Al, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At.

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  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

  • What are Compound Microscopes?

    Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...

  • Use of diamonds

    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...

  • Why do copper products change color, and what is the name of the process?

    Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.

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Low Spin Complex

Crystal field designation for an inner orbital complex, contains electrons paired t2g orbitals before eg orbitals are occupied in octahedral complexes.

Ionic Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) about the central atom of a polyatomic ion.

Structural Isomers

Compounds that contain the same number of the same kinds of atoms in different geometric arrangements.

Water Equivalent

The amount of water that would absorb the same amount of heat as the calorimeter per degree temperature increase.


A piece of volumetric glassware, usually graduated in 0.1-mL intervals, that is used to deliver solutions to be used in titrations in a quantitative (dropwise) manner.

Binary Acid

A binary compound in which H is bonded to one or more of the more electronegative nonmetals.

Specific Rate Constant

An experimentally determined (proportionality) constant, which is different for different reactions and which changes only with temperature, k in the rate-law expression: Rate = k [A] x [B]v.

Ground State

The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.

Emulsifying Agent

A sustance that coats the particles of the dispersed phase and prevents coagulation of colloidal particles, an emulsifier.

Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy

The total amount of matter and energy available in the universe is fixed.