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An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.

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  • Interesting facts about metals

    Metals have been used by people since ancient times. All the time the process of obtaining them was improved, useful alloys of various metals appeared. Let’s look at interesting facts about metals.

  • The most expensive metal in the world

    Do you think the most expensive metal is gold? No! On earth there are more valuable metals. But we need to divide the value of metals that occur in nature, and metals - isotopes, which are obtained in special laboratories. Let’s look at natural metals first.

  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

  • Creating Malachite egg

    One of the most interesting and obvious chemical experiments is the experiment on the interaction of copper sulfate and calcium carbonate. The latter is contained in the shell of a simple egg, but copper sulphate should be searched in a chemical reagent store. This experience is simple, but...

  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.



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Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among elements and compounds as they undergo chemical changes.

Solubility Product Constant

Equilibrium constant that applies to the dissolution of a slightly soluble compound.

Dipole Moment

The product of the distance separating opposite charges of equal magnitude of the charge, a measure of the polarity of a bond or molecule, a measured dipole moment refers to the dipole moment of an entire molecule.

Specific Gravity

The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water.

Donor Atom

A ligand atom whose electrons are shared with a Lewis acid.

Eutrophication

The undesirable overgrowth of vegetation caused by high concentrates of plant nutrients in bodies of water.

Theoretical Yield

Maximum amount of a specified product that could be obtained from specified amounts of reactants, assuming complete consumption of limiting reactant according to only one reaction and complete recovery of product.

Critical Point

The combination of critical temperature and critical pressure of a substance.

Actinides

Elements 89 to 103 (between lawrencium and actinium) on the periodic table. Only the first four have been found in nature in appreciable amounts. The remainder have been produced synthetically.

Dermal toxicity

Adverse health effects resulting from skin exposure ot a substance.