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An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.

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Le Chatelier's Principle

States that a system at equilibrium, or striving to attain equilibrium, responds in such a way as to counteract any stress placed upon it.
If a stress (change of conditions) is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that reduces stress.

Atomic Orbital

Region or volume in space in which the probability of finding electrons is highest.

Tetrahedral

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in center and four atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron.

Critical Point

The combination of critical temperature and critical pressure of a substance.

xylan

The pentosan occurring in woody tissue that hydrolyzes to xylose: used as a source of furfural.

Polyprotic Acid

An Acid that can form two or more hydronium ions per molecule, often a least one step of ionization is weak.

Electrode Potentials

Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.

Activity of a component of ideal mixture

A dimensionless quantity whose magnitude is: equal to molar concentration in an ideal solution, equal to partial pressure in an ideal gas mixture, and defined as 1 for pure solids or liquids.

Electrolytic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current by ions through a solution or pure liquid.

Chemical Bonds

The attractive forces that hold atoms together in elements or compounds.