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Representation of the core of a molecule, ion or formula unit by showing atomic symbols and only outer shell electrons.

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Oil

Liquid triester of glycerol and unsaturated fatty acids.

Intermolecular Forces

Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.

Nonpolar Bond

Covalent bond in which electron density is symmetrically distributed.

Solubility Product Principle

The solubility product constant expression for a slightly soluble compound is the product of the concentrations of the constituent ions, each raised to the power that corresponds to the number of ions in one formula unit.

Eutrophication

The undesirable overgrowth of vegetation caused by high concentrates of plant nutrients in bodies of water.

Neutralization

The reaction of an acid with a base to form a salt and water. Usually, the reaction of hydrogen ions with hydrogen ions to form water molecules.

Cell Potential

Potential difference, Ecell, between oxidation and reduction half-cells under nonstandard conditions.

 

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory

Assumes that electron pairs are arranged around the central element of a molecule or polyatomic ion so that there is maximum separation (and minimum repulsion) among regions of high electron density.

 

Denaturation

A process pertaining to a change in structure of a protein form regular to irregular arrangement of the polypeptide chains.

yttrium

A rare trivalent metallic element, found in gadolinite and other minerals. Symbol: Y, at. wt.: 88.905, at. no.: 39, sp. gr.: 4.47. Cf."rare-earth element."

Yttrium has a silver-metallic luster and is relatively stable in air unless finely divided. Turnings of the metal, however, ignite in air if their temperature exceeds 400oC. Yttrium oxide is one of the most important compounds of yttrium and accounts for the largest use. It is widely used in making YVO4 europium, and Y2O3 europium phosphors to give the red color in color television tubes.