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Representation of the core of a molecule, ion or formula unit by showing atomic symbols and only outer shell electrons.

Latest Articles

  • What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support

    Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...

  • What are Compound Microscopes?

    Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...

  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

  • Creating Malachite egg

    One of the most interesting and obvious chemical experiments is the experiment on the interaction of copper sulfate and calcium carbonate. The latter is contained in the shell of a simple egg, but copper sulphate should be searched in a chemical reagent store. This experience is simple, but...

  • Use of diamonds

    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...



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Disproportionation Reactions

Redox reactions in which the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent are the same species.

ytterbia

Ytterbia is a colorless compound, Yb2O3, used in certain alloys and ceramics. Also known as ytterbium oxide.

Solute

The dispersed (dissolved) phase of a solution.

Reducing Agent

The substance that reduces another substance and is oxidized.

Hydration Energy

The energy change accompanying the hydration of a mole of gase and ions.

Creating Malachite egg

One of the most interesting and obvious chemical experiments is the experiment on the interaction of copper sulfate and calcium carbonate. The latter is contained in the shell of a simple egg, but copper sulphate should be searched in a chemical reagent store. This experience is simple, but effective and visual, and as a result we will get something beautiful.

Electronic Geometry

The geometric arrangement of orbitals containing the shared and unshared electron pairs surrounding the central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

Nodal Plane

A region in which the probability of finding an electron is zero.

 

What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support

Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry.

As these quality standards become stricter, beverage producers are increasingly called upon to get products to market faster using fewer resources, while simultaneously managing ingredient quality, and ultimately, risk.

Metallurgy

Refers to the overall processes by which metals are extracted from ores.