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Representation of the core of a molecule, ion or formula unit by showing atomic symbols and only outer shell electrons.

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  • Varieties of garnet minerals

    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

  • Creating Malachite egg

    One of the most interesting and obvious chemical experiments is the experiment on the interaction of copper sulfate and calcium carbonate. The latter is contained in the shell of a simple egg, but copper sulphate should be searched in a chemical reagent store. This experience is simple, but...

  • Gas of rotten eggs

    If you happen to break a rotten egg, then you know the smell of hydrogen sulfide, because the stench of the spoiled egg depends on of its presence in rotting protein substances.

  • Why do copper products change color, and what is the name of the process?

    Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.

  • What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support

    Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...



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xylose

A colorless, crystalline pentose sugar, C5H10O5, derived from xylan, straw, corncobs, etc., by treating with heated dilute sulfuric acid, and dehydrating to furfural if stronger acid is used.

Donor Atom

A ligand atom whose electrons are shared with a Lewis acid.

Meniscus

The shape assumed by the surface of a liquid in a cylindrical container.

Buffer Solution

Solution that resists change in pH, contains either a weak acid and a soluble ionic salt of the acid or a weak base and a soluble ionic salt of the base.

Anode

In a cathode ray tube, the positive electrode. Electrode at which oxidation occurs.

Cell Potential

Potential difference, Ecell, between oxidation and reduction half-cells under nonstandard conditions.

 

Condensed Phases

The liquid and solid phases, phases in which particles interact strongly.

Integrated Rate Equation

An equation giving the concentration of a reactant remaining after a specified time, has different mathematical form for different orders of reactants.

Kinetic-molecular Theory

A theory, that attempts to explain macroscopic observations on gases in microscopic observations on gases in microscopic observations on gases in microscopic or molecular terms.

Buret

A piece of volumetric glassware, usually graduated in 0.1-mL intervals, that is used to deliver solutions to be used in titrations in a quantitative (dropwise) manner.