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Representation of the core of a molecule, ion or formula unit by showing atomic symbols and only outer shell electrons.

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  • Use of diamonds

    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...

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    Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...

  • Gas of rotten eggs

    If you happen to break a rotten egg, then you know the smell of hydrogen sulfide, because the stench of the spoiled egg depends on of its presence in rotting protein substances.

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    Chemistry can teach us about the composition of celestial bodies and determine their age.

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    It's getting close to New Years and many people are starting to think about how to lose those extra pounds they managed to gain over the holidays. There are many sorts of diets and fads that have developed over the years from cutting carbs to cutting protein. Everyone has their own opinion as to...



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Alums

Hydrated sulfates of the general formula M+M3+(SO4)2.12H2).

ytterbium

A rare metallic element found in gadolinite and forming compounds resembling those of yttrium. Symbol: Yb, at. wt.: 173.04, at. no.: 70, sp. gr.: 6.96. Cf."rare-earth element."

 

Disproportionation Reactions

Redox reactions in which the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent are the same species.

Dipole

Refers to the separation of charge between two covalently bonded atoms.

Formal Charge

A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion, counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.

Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.

Levorotatory

Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light counterclockwise, also called levo.

Nuclear Binding Energy

Energy equivalent of the mass deficiency, energy released in the formation of an atom from the subatomic particles.

 

Heterogeneous Catalyst

A catalyst that exists in a different phase (solid, liquid or gas) from the reactants, a contact catalyst.

Dry Cells

Ordinary batteries (voltaic cells) for flashlights. radios, and so on, many are Leclanche cells.