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States that a system at equilibrium, or striving to attain equilibrium, responds in such a way as to counteract any stress placed upon it.
If a stress (change of conditions) is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that reduces stress.

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Concentration

Amount of solute per unit volume or mass of solvent or of solution.

Detergent

A soap-like emulsifer that contains a sulfate, SO3 or a phosphate group instead of a carboxylate group.

Dry Cells

Ordinary batteries (voltaic cells) for flashlights. radios, and so on, many are Leclanche cells.

Coordinate Covalent Bond

A covalent bond in which both shared electrons are donated by the same atom, a bond between a Lewis base and a Lewis acid.

Semipermable Membrane

A thin partition between two solutions through which certain molecules can pass but others cannot.

Periodicity

Regular periodic variations of properties of elements with atomic number (and position in the periodic table).

Heat of Fusion

The amount of heat required to melt one gram of solid at its melting point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of fusion is the amount of heat required to melt one mole of a solid at its melting point with no change in temperature and is usually expressed in kJ/mol.

Energy

The capacity to do work or transfer heat.

Aryl Group

Group of atoms remaining after a hydrogen atom is removed from the aromatic system.

Heat Capacity

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a body (of any mass) one degree Celsius.