States that a system at equilibrium, or striving to attain equilibrium, responds in such a way as to counteract any stress placed upon it.
If a stress (change of conditions) is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that reduces stress.
- What are Compound Microscopes?
Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...
- Chemical Safety
People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car. This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is...
- Harmful Chemicals Found In Food
It's getting close to New Years and many people are starting to think about how to lose those extra pounds they managed to gain over the holidays. There are many sorts of diets and fads that have developed over the years from cutting carbs to cutting protein. Everyone has their own opinion as to...
- Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis
In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
- Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
Potential difference, Ecell, between oxidation and reduction half-cells under nonstandard conditions.
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
It is impossible to determine accurately both the momentum and position of an electron simultaneously.
Square Planar Complex
Complex in which the metal is in the center of a square plane, with ligand donor atoms at each of the four corners.
A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed itself in the reaction.
A substance that alters (usually increases) the rate at which a reaction occurs.
Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell
Fuel cell in which hydrogen is the fuel (reducing agent) and oxygen is the oxidizing agent.
Magnetic Quantum Number (mc)
Quantum mechanical solution to a wave equation that designates the particular orbital within a given set (s, p, d, f ) in which a electron resides.
Derivatives of ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic groups.
Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light counterclockwise, also called levo.
An area that may be used for work with carcinogens, reproductive toxins, or substances that have a high degree of acute toxicity. A designated area may be the entire laboratory, an area of a laboratory, or a device such as a laboratory hood.
Spontaneous decomposition of an atom.
Any of six colorless, crystalline, isomeric acids having the formula C9H10O2, derived from xylene.
The pentosan occurring in woody tissue that hydrolyzes to xylose: used as a source of furfural.
A unit of pressure, the pressure that will support a column of mercury 760 mm high at 0 °C.
A partially filled band or a band of vacant energy levels just higher in energy than a filled band, a band within which, or into which, electrons must be promoted to allow electrical conduction to occur in a solid.
A substance that conducts electricity well in a dilute aqueous solution.
A thermodynamic state or property that measures the degree of disorder or randomness of a system.
Integral number of protons in the nucleus, defines the identity of element.
Refers to species that have only six electrons in the highest energy level of the central element (many Lewis acids).
A common type of dry cell.
Region or volume in space in which the probability of finding electrons is highest.