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States that a system at equilibrium, or striving to attain equilibrium, responds in such a way as to counteract any stress placed upon it.
If a stress (change of conditions) is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that reduces stress.

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Octane Number

A number that indicates how smoothly a gasoline burns.

Reverse Osmosis

Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.

Extensive Property

A property that depends upon the amount of material in a sample.

Avogadro's Law

At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules.

Isomers

Different substances that have the same formula.

Distillate

The material in a distillation apparatus that is collected in the receiver.

 

Titration

A Procedure in which one solution is added to another solution until the chemical reaction between the two solutes is complete, the concentration of one solution is known and that of the other is unknown.

 

Covalent Compounds

Compounds containing predominantly covalent bonds.

Addition Reaction

A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).

Hydrogenation

The reaction in which hydrogen adds across a double or triple bond.