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States that a system at equilibrium, or striving to attain equilibrium, responds in such a way as to counteract any stress placed upon it.
If a stress (change of conditions) is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that reduces stress.

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Effective Molality

The sum of the molalities of all solute particles in a solution.

Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

Hydration Energy

The energy change accompanying the hydration of a mole of gase and ions.

Optical Isomers

Stereoisomers that differ only by being nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other, like right and left hands, also called enantiomers.

Chain Reaction

A reaction that, once initiated, sustains itself and expands. This is a reaction in which reactive species, such as radicals, are produced in more than one step. These reactive species, radicals, propagate the chain reaction.

 

Salinometer

An instrument for measuring the amount of salt in a solution. Also,"salimeter, salometer."

Overlap

The interaction of orbitals on different atoms in the same region of space.

Evaporation Rate

The rate at which a particular substance will vapourize (evaporate) when compared to the rate of a known substance such as ethyl ether. This term is especially useful for health and fire-hazard considerations.

Valence Electrons

Outermost electrons of atoms, usually those involved in bonding.

Debye

The unit used to express dipole moments.