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States that a system at equilibrium, or striving to attain equilibrium, responds in such a way as to counteract any stress placed upon it.
If a stress (change of conditions) is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that reduces stress.

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Mole Fraction

The number of moles of a component of a mixture divided by the total number of moles in the mixture.

 

Rate-determining Step

The slowest step in a mechanism, the step that determines the overall rate of reaction.

Detergent

A soap-like emulsifer that contains a sulfate, SO3 or a phosphate group instead of a carboxylate group.

Intermolecular Forces

Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.

Energy

The capacity to do work or transfer heat.

Saccharide

An organic compound containing a sugar or sugars.

Diamagnetism

Weak repulsion by a magnetic field.

Oxidation-reduction Reactions

Reactions in which oxidation and reduction occur, also called redox reactions.

Exothermicity

The release of heat by a system as a process occurs.

Differential Thermometer

A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.

Specific Heat

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.

Nonelectrolyte

A substance whose aqueous solutions do not conduct electricity.

Heat of Solution

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of solution that contains one mole of solute, the value is positive if heat is absorbed (endothermic) and negative if heat is released (exothermic).

Hydration Energy

The energy change accompanying the hydration of a mole of gase and ions.

Liquid Aerosol

Colloidal suspension of liquid in gas.

Activity of a component of ideal mixture

A dimensionless quantity whose magnitude is: equal to molar concentration in an ideal solution, equal to partial pressure in an ideal gas mixture, and defined as 1 for pure solids or liquids.

Optical Isomers

Stereoisomers that differ only by being nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other, like right and left hands, also called enantiomers.

Surface Tension

It is the force in dynes acting along the surface of the liquid 1cm in length and perpendicular to it.

Born-Haber Cycle

A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

Critical Point

The combination of critical temperature and critical pressure of a substance.