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A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2 which is also 0.2390 calorie.

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Dosimeter

A small, calibrated electroscope worn by laboratory personnel and designated to detect and measure incident ionizing radiation or chemical exposure.

Heterogeneous Equilibria

Equilibria involving species in more than one phase.

Metallic Bonding

Bonding within metals due to the electrical attraction of positively charges metal ions for mobile electrons that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Solvation

The process by which solvent molecules surround and interact with solute ions or molecules.

End Point

The point at which an indicator changes colour and a titration is stopped.

Capillary Action

The drawing of a liquid up the inside of a small-bore tube when adhesive forces exceed cohesive forces, or the depression of the surface of the liquid when cohesive forces exceed the adhesive forces.

Thermonuclear Energy

The energy stored in the nucleus of an atom and released through fission, fusion, or radioactivity. In these processes a small amount of mass is converted to energy according to the relationship E = mc2, where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light.

Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy

The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.

Coke

An impure form of carbon obtained by destructive distillation of coal or petroleum.

Acyl Group

Compound derived from a carbonic acid by replacing the --OH group with a halogen (X), usually --Cl, general formula is O R--C--X.