A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2 which is also 0.2390 calorie.
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The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
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Inert s-pair Effect
Characteristic of the post-transition minerals, tendency of the outermost s electrons to remain nonionized or un shared in compounds.
Region or volume in space in which the probability of finding electrons is highest.
A vertical column in the periodic table, also called a family.
Group VIIA elements: F, Cl, Br, I
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.
The particle pressure of a vapor at the surface of its parent liquid.
An element below and to the left of the stepwise division (metalloids) in the upper right corner of the periodic table, about 80% of the known elements are metals.
A sample of matter composed of two or more substances, each of which retains its identity and properties.
A substance of two or more elements in fixed proportions. Compounds can be decomposed into their constituent elements.
A device used for accelerating charged particles along a straight line path.
The mass action expression under any set of conditions (not necessarily equlibrium), its magnitude relative to K determines the direction in which the reaction must occur to establish equilibrium.
A small amount of radioisotope replacing a nonradioactive isotope of the element in a compound whose path (for example, in the body) or whose decomposition products are to be monitored by detection of radioctivity, also called a radioactive label.
Reactions in which one element displaces another from a compound.
Unit of electrical charge.
Compound derived from a carbonic acid by replacing the --OH group with a halogen (X), usually --Cl, general formula is O R--C--X.
A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.
A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed itself in the reaction.
A substance that alters (usually increases) the rate at which a reaction occurs.
Binary compounds of boron and hydrogen.
Nickel-cadmium cell (Nicad battery)
A dry cell in which the anode is Cd, the cathode is NiO2, and the electrolyte is basic.
The solid and liquid states.