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A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2 which is also 0.2390 calorie.

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Alpha (a) Particle

Helium ion with 2+ charge, an assembly of two protons and two neutrons.

Hydrate

A solid compound that contains a definite percentage of bound water.

Atmosphere

A unit of pressure, the pressure that will support a column of mercury 760 mm high at 0 °C.

Designated area

An area that may be used for work with carcinogens, reproductive toxins, or substances that have a high degree of acute toxicity. A designated area may be the entire laboratory, an area of a laboratory, or a device such as a laboratory hood.

Sigma Orbital

Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.

Isoelectric

Having the same electronic configurations.

Reactants

Substances consumed in a chemical reaction.

Reaction Quotient

The mass action expression under any set of conditions (not necessarily equlibrium), its magnitude relative to K determines the direction in which the reaction must occur to establish equilibrium.

Rate-law Expression

Equation relating the rate of a reaction to the concentrations of the reactants and the specific rate of the constant.

Autoionization

An ionization reaction between identical molecules.