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A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2 which is also 0.2390 calorie.

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Inert s-pair Effect

Characteristic of the post-transition minerals, tendency of the outermost s electrons to remain nonionized or un shared in compounds.

Atomic Orbital

Region or volume in space in which the probability of finding electrons is highest.

Group

A vertical column in the periodic table, also called a family.

Halogens

Group VIIA elements: F, Cl, Br, I

Specific Heat

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.

Vapor Pressure

The particle pressure of a vapor at the surface of its parent liquid.

Metal

An element below and to the left of the stepwise division (metalloids) in the upper right corner of the periodic table, about 80% of the known elements are metals.

Mixture

A sample of matter composed of two or more substances, each of which retains its identity and properties.

Compound

A substance of two or more elements in fixed proportions. Compounds can be decomposed into their constituent elements.

Linear Accelerator

A device used for accelerating charged particles along a straight line path.

Reaction Quotient

The mass action expression under any set of conditions (not necessarily equlibrium), its magnitude relative to K determines the direction in which the reaction must occur to establish equilibrium.

Radioactive Tracer

A small amount of radioisotope replacing a nonradioactive isotope of the element in a compound whose path (for example, in the body) or whose decomposition products are to be monitored by detection of radioctivity, also called a radioactive label.

Displacement Reactions

Reactions in which one element displaces another from a compound.

 

Coulomb

Unit of electrical charge.

Acyl Group

Compound derived from a carbonic acid by replacing the --OH group with a halogen (X), usually --Cl, general formula is O R--C--X.

Functional Group

A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.

Catalyst

A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed itself in the reaction.
A substance that alters (usually increases) the rate at which a reaction occurs.

Boron Hydrides

Binary compounds of boron and hydrogen.

Nickel-cadmium cell (Nicad battery)

A dry cell in which the anode is Cd, the cathode is NiO2, and the electrolyte is basic.

Condensed States

The solid and liquid states.