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A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2 which is also 0.2390 calorie.

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xenon tetrafluoride

A colorless, crystalline compound, XeF4, prepared by heating a gaseous mixture of fluorine and xenon.

D-Orbitals

Beginning in the third energy level, aset of five degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s and p orbitals of the same energy level.

 

Bronsted-Lowry Base

A proton acceptor

Period

The elements in a horizontal row of the periodic table.

Meniscus

The shape assumed by the surface of a liquid in a cylindrical container.

Nuclear Binding Energy

Energy equivalent of the mass deficiency, energy released in the formation of an atom from the subatomic particles.

 

Reverse Osmosis

Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.

Spectator Ions

Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.

Colligative Properties

Physical properties of solutions that depend upon the number but not the kind of solute particles present.

Compound

A substance of two or more elements in fixed proportions. Compounds can be decomposed into their constituent elements.

Sigma Bonds

Bonds resulting from the head-on overlap of atomic orbitals, in which the region of electron sharing is along and (cylindrically) symmetrical to the imaginary line connecting the bonded atoms.

Autoionization

An ionization reaction between identical molecules.

Flotation

Method by which hydrophobic (water-repelling) particles of an ore are separated from hydrophilic (water-attracting) particles of a metallurgical pretreatment process.

Reaction Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among substances as they participate in chemical reactions.

Entropy

A thermodynamic state or property that measures the degree of disorder or randomness of a system.

Shielding Effect

Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.

Hydrophilic Colloids

Colloidal particles that repel water molecules.

London Forces

Very weak and very short-range attractive forces between short-lived temporary (induced) dipoles, also called dispersion Forces.

Radioactivity

The spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei.

Sigma Orbital

Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.