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A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2 which is also 0.2390 calorie.

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Eutrophication

The undesirable overgrowth of vegetation caused by high concentrates of plant nutrients in bodies of water.

Reverse Osmosis

Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.

Ligand

A Lewis base in a coordination compound.

Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy

The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.

xylose

A colorless, crystalline pentose sugar, C5H10O5, derived from xylan, straw, corncobs, etc., by treating with heated dilute sulfuric acid, and dehydrating to furfural if stronger acid is used.

Bond Energy

The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds of a given kind (in gas phase).The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds in a substance, dissociating the sustance in the gaseous state into atoms of its elements in the gaseous state.

Standard Molar Volume

The volume occupied by one mole of an ideal gas under standard conditions, 22.4liters.

Diagonal Similarities

Refers to chemical similarities in the Periodic Table of elements of Period 2 to elements of Period 3 one group to the right, especially evident toward the left of the periodic table.

Joule

A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2 which is also 0.2390 calorie.

Alkaline Battery

A dry cell in which the electrolyte contains KOH.