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Colloidal particles that repel water molecules.

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Degenerate

Of the same energy.

Bond Energy

The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds of a given kind (in gas phase).The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds in a substance, dissociating the sustance in the gaseous state into atoms of its elements in the gaseous state.

Fossil Fuels

Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry

Flammable

A liquid as defined by NFPD and DOT as having a flash point below 37.8°C (100°F).

Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.

Pineapple literally "erodes" the tongue

Everyone who has ever tried fresh pineapple knows that if you eat too much, your lips and tongue hurt for a while. This is because the pineapple contains an enzyme called bromelain. This enzyme literally "erodes" the tongue.

Aufbau ('building up') Principle

Describes the order in which electrons fill orbitals in atoms.

Polymer

A large molecule consisting of chains or rings of linked monomer units, usually characterized by high melting and boiling points.

Hydration

Reaction of a substance with water.

Dipole-dipole Interactions

Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.