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A solid compound that contains a definite percentage of bound water.

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Alloying

Mixing of metal with other substances (usually other metals) to modify its properties.

Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

Molarity

Number of moles of solute per litre of solution.

Sigma Orbital

Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.

Reaction Ratio

The relative amounts of reactants and products involved in a reaction, maybe the ratio of moles. millimoles, or masses.

 

Molecular Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction in which all formulas are written as if all substances existed as molecules, only complete formulas are used.

Effective Molality

The sum of the molalities of all solute particles in a solution.

Weak Electrolyte

A substance that conducts electricity poorly in a dilute aqueous solution.

Control Rods

Rods of materials such as cadmium or boron steel that act as neutron obsorbers (not merely moderaters) used in nuclear reactors to control neutron fluxes and therfore rates of fission.

yttria

Y2O3: A white, water-insoluble powder, Y2O3, used chiefly in incandescent gas and acetylene mantles.

Freezing Point Depression

The decrease in the freezing point of a solvent caused by the presence of a solute.ing Point

Resonance

The concept in which two or more equivalent dot formulas for the same arrangement of atoms (resonance structures) are necessary to describe the bonding in a molecule or ion.

Particulate Matter

Fine divided solid particles suspended in polluted air.

Hydrophilic Colloids

Colloidal particles that repel water molecules.

Donor Atom

A ligand atom whose electrons are shared with a Lewis acid.

Coordination Number

In describing crystals, the number of nearest neighbours of an atom or ion. The number of donor atoms coordinated to a metal.

Aryl Group

Group of atoms remaining after a hydrogen atom is removed from the aromatic system.

Thermal Cracking

Decomposition by heating a substance in the presence of a catalyst and in the absence of air.

 

Displacement Reactions

Reactions in which one element displaces another from a compound.

 

Electromagnetic Radiation

Energy that is propagated by means of electric and magnetic fields that oscillate in directions perpendicular to the direction of travel of the energy.