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The energy change accompanying the hydration of a mole of gase and ions.

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Raoult's Law

The vapor pressure of a solvent in an ideal solution decreases as its mole fraction decreases.

Mass Spectrometer

An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.

Effective Molality

The sum of the molalities of all solute particles in a solution.

Capillary Action

The drawing of a liquid up the inside of a small-bore tube when adhesive forces exceed cohesive forces, or the depression of the surface of the liquid when cohesive forces exceed the adhesive forces.

D-Orbitals

Beginning in the third energy level, aset of five degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s and p orbitals of the same energy level.

 

Percent by Mass

100% times the actual yield divided by theoretical yield.

Oxidation Numbers

Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

Formal Charge

A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion, counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.

Octane Number

A number that indicates how smoothly a gasoline burns.

Covalent Bond

Chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two atoms.