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The energy change accompanying the hydration of a mole of gase and ions.

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Sigma Orbital

Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.

Varieties of garnet minerals

The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in elite jewelry.

Where is ozone used?

Ozone is widely used in various areas of our life. It is used in medicine, in industry, in everyday life.

Chain Reaction

A reaction that, once initiated, sustains itself and expands. This is a reaction in which reactive species, such as radicals, are produced in more than one step. These reactive species, radicals, propagate the chain reaction.

 

Halogens

Group VIIA elements: F, Cl, Br, I

Plasma

A physical state of matter which exists at extremely high temperatures in which all molecules are dissociated and most atoms are ionized.

Extrapolate

To estimate the value of a result outside the range of a series of known values. Technique used in standard additions calibration procedure.

Flotation

Method by which hydrophobic (water-repelling) particles of an ore are separated from hydrophilic (water-attracting) particles of a metallurgical pretreatment process.

Weak Electrolyte

A substance that conducts electricity poorly in a dilute aqueous solution.

Acetic Acid

CA3COOH, clear, colorless liquid, pungent odor. Boiling point 140C, flash point 54C (closed cup), autoignition temperature 38OC.