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The energy change accompanying the hydration of a mole of gase and ions.

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Faraday

One faraday of electricity corresponds to the charge on 6.022 x 1023 electrons, or 96,487.301 coulombs.

Spectral Line

Any of a number of lines corresponding to definite wavelengths of an atomic emission or absorption spectrum, represents the energy difference between two energy levels.

 

Domain

A cluster of atoms in a ferromagnetic substance, all of which align in the same direction in the presence of an external magnetic field.

Graham's Law

The rates of effusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molecular weights or densities.

Band of Stability

Band containing nonradioactive nuclides in a plot of number of neutrons versus atomic number.

Essential Oil

A plant extract that has a distinctive odour or flavour.

Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

Precipitate

An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the constituent ions of a slightly soluble solution.

Atomic Number


Integral number of protons in the nucleus, defines the identity of element.
 

Dextrorotatory

Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light clockwise, also called dextro.

Avogadro's Number

The number (6.022x10^23) of atoms, molecules or particles found in exactly 1 mole of substance.

Homogeneous Mixture

A mixture which has uniform composition and properties throughout.

Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell

Fuel cell in which hydrogen is the fuel (reducing agent) and oxygen is the oxidizing agent.

 

Weak Field Ligand

A Ligand that exerts a weak crystal or ligand field and ge- nerally forms high spin complexes with metals.

Polyprotic Acid

An Acid that can form two or more hydronium ions per molecule, often a least one step of ionization is weak.

Nucleus

The very small, very dense, positively charged center of an atom containing protons and neutrons, as well as other subatomic particles.

Law of Combining Volumes (Gay-Lussac's Law)

At constant temperature and pressure, the volumes of reacting gases (and any gaseous products) can be expressed as ratios of small whole numbers.

 

Chemical Bonds

The attractive forces that hold atoms together in elements or compounds.

Fluids

Substances that flow freely, gases and liquids.

Amorphous Solid

A noncrystalline solid with no well-defined ordered structure.