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The energy change accompanying the hydration of a mole of gase and ions.

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Saturated Solution

Solution in which no more solute will dissolve.

Le Chatelier's Principle

States that a system at equilibrium, or striving to attain equilibrium, responds in such a way as to counteract any stress placed upon it.
If a stress (change of conditions) is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that reduces stress.

Dry Cells

Ordinary batteries (voltaic cells) for flashlights. radios, and so on, many are Leclanche cells.

Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.

Oxidation-reduction Reactions

Reactions in which oxidation and reduction occur, also called redox reactions.

Dipole Moment

The product of the distance separating opposite charges of equal magnitude of the charge, a measure of the polarity of a bond or molecule, a measured dipole moment refers to the dipole moment of an entire molecule.

Carbonium ion

An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.

Buffer Solution

Solution that resists change in pH, contains either a weak acid and a soluble ionic salt of the acid or a weak base and a soluble ionic salt of the base.

Phase Diagram

Diagram that shows equilibrium temperature-pressure relationships for different phases of a substance.


A compound that contains more than one double bond per molecule.