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The energy change accompanying the hydration of a mole of gase and ions.

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Gangue

Sand, rock, and other impurities surrounding the mineral of interest in an ore.

Third Law of Thermodynamics

The entropy of a hypothetical pure, perfect, crystalline sustance at absolute zero temperature is zero.

Boiling Point

The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the applied pressure, also the condensation point

Aufbau ('building up') Principle

Describes the order in which electrons fill orbitals in atoms.

Equivalent Weight

An oxidizing or reducing agent, who's mass gains (oxidizing agents) or loses (reducing agents) 6.022 x 1023 electrons in a redox reaction.
The mass of an acid or base that furnishes or reacts with 6.022 x 1023 H3O+ or OH- ions.

Evaporization

Vaporization of a liquid below its boiling point.

Alums

Hydrated sulfates of the general formula M+M3+(SO4)2.12H2).

Atomic Radius

Radius of an atom.

Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.

van der Waals' Equation

An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.