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Mixing a set of atomic orbitals to form a new set of atomic orbitals with the same total electron capacity and with properties and energies intermediate between those of the original unhybridized orbitals.

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Hydrocarbons

Compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen.

Heterocyclic Amine

Amine in which the nitrogen is part of a ring.

Vapor

A gas formed by boiling or evaporating a liquid.

Explosive

A chemical or compound that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release or pressure, gas, heat and light when subjected to sudden shock, pressure, high temperature or applied potential.

Percent Composition

The mass percent of each element in a compound.

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory

Assumes that electron pairs are arranged around the central element of a molecule or polyatomic ion so that there is maximum separation (and minimum repulsion) among regions of high electron density.

 

Aufbau ('building up') Principle

Describes the order in which electrons fill orbitals in atoms.

Molecular Orbital

An orbit resulting from overlap and mixing of atomic orbitals on different atoms. An MO belongs to the molecule as a whole.

Alkaline Earth Metals

Group IIA metals

Polymerization

The combination of many small molecules to form large molecules.

Dipole

Refers to the separation of charge between two covalently bonded atoms.

Liquid Aerosol

Colloidal suspension of liquid in gas.

Buffer Solution

Solution that resists change in pH, contains either a weak acid and a soluble ionic salt of the acid or a weak base and a soluble ionic salt of the base.

Safranine

Also called "phenosafranine". A purplish-red, water-soluble dye, C18H14N4, used for textiles and as a stain in microscopy.

Voltage

Potential difference between two electrodes, a measure of the chemical potential for a redox reaction to occur.

Metallic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current through a metal or along a metallic surface.

Designated area

An area that may be used for work with carcinogens, reproductive toxins, or substances that have a high degree of acute toxicity. A designated area may be the entire laboratory, an area of a laboratory, or a device such as a laboratory hood.

Solution

Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.

Standard Molar Enthalphy of Formation

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of one mole of a substance in a specified state from its elements in their standard states.

Fossil Fuels

Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry