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Mixing a set of atomic orbitals to form a new set of atomic orbitals with the same total electron capacity and with properties and energies intermediate between those of the original unhybridized orbitals.

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Bomb Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings at constant volume.

Alkynes

Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds.

Boyle's Law

At constant temperature the volume occupied by a definite mass of a gas is inversely proportional to the applied pressure.

Molecular Orbital

An orbit resulting from overlap and mixing of atomic orbitals on different atoms. An MO belongs to the molecule as a whole.

Semipermable Membrane

A thin partition between two solutions through which certain molecules can pass but others cannot.

Heat of Vaporization

The amount of heat required to vaporize one gram of a liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of vaporization is the amount of heat required to vaporize one mole of liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature and usually expressed ion kJ/mol.

Heat of Crystallization

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

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American Chemistry Council News and Media - Provides chemistry business and industry news, updated issue briefs, fact sheets, press releases, media contacts and other resources.
About Chemistry - News articles, periodic tables, educational resources, newsletters, and annotated links.
General Chemistry Online - Rich resource for students and teachers of introductory chemistry. Includes interactive course guides and tutorials, an exam survival guide, reference tables, self-grading quizzes and exams, a searchable glossary, a question and answer board, answers to over 300 frequently asked questions, and a chemical trivia quiz.
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Chemistry & Environmental Dictionary - Contains definitions for many chemistry, environmental and other related technical terms and acronyms.
EDF Chemical Scoreboard - Toxic Release Inventory data for the US. Sources and amounts of toxic chemicals released to air and water. Also has information on health effects and other topics.
Chemistry Articles - Collection of chemistry and chemical related articles.

 

Ground State

The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.

xylan

The pentosan occurring in woody tissue that hydrolyzes to xylose: used as a source of furfural.