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Mixing a set of atomic orbitals to form a new set of atomic orbitals with the same total electron capacity and with properties and energies intermediate between those of the original unhybridized orbitals.

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Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, there is no net change in concentrations of reactants or products while a system is at equilibrium.

Actinides

Elements 89 to 103 (between lawrencium and actinium) on the periodic table. Only the first four have been found in nature in appreciable amounts. The remainder have been produced synthetically.

Reaction Quotient

The mass action expression under any set of conditions (not necessarily equlibrium), its magnitude relative to K determines the direction in which the reaction must occur to establish equilibrium.

Photon

A packet of light or electromagnetic radiation, also called quantum of light.

 

Standard Molar Volume

The volume occupied by one mole of an ideal gas under standard conditions, 22.4liters.

Oil

Liquid triester of glycerol and unsaturated fatty acids.

Precipitate

An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the constituent ions of a slightly soluble solution.

Indicators

For acid-base titrations, organic compounds that exhibit different colors in solutions of different acidities, used to determine the point at which reaction between two solutes is complete.

Spectrum

Display of component wavelengths (colours) of electromagnetic radiation.

Kinetic-molecular Theory

A theory, that attempts to explain macroscopic observations on gases in microscopic observations on gases in microscopic observations on gases in microscopic or molecular terms.