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Mixing a set of atomic orbitals to form a new set of atomic orbitals with the same total electron capacity and with properties and energies intermediate between those of the original unhybridized orbitals.

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Hydrogenation

The reaction in which hydrogen adds across a double or triple bond.

Energy

The capacity to do work or transfer heat.

Nitric Acid

HNO3: A strong acid, it is toxic and can cause severe burns. Transparent colorless or yellowish, fuming, suffocating, caustic and corrosive liquid. Nitric acid boiling point is 83C. A 70 percent solution is used in the S.S.E. laboratory for junction depth measurements. Nitric acid is also present in the metal etch solution used for the Aluminum etch procedure.

Basic Anhydride

The oxide of a metal that reacts with water to form a base.

xenon tetrafluoride

A colorless, crystalline compound, XeF4, prepared by heating a gaseous mixture of fluorine and xenon.

Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy

The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.

Carbonium ion

An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.

Double Salt

Solid consisting of two co-crystallized salts.

 

Atomic Orbital

Region or volume in space in which the probability of finding electrons is highest.

Fossil Fuels

Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry

Chemical Kinetics

The study of rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions and of the factors on which they depend.

Condensed Phases

The liquid and solid phases, phases in which particles interact strongly.

Hydration

Reaction of a substance with water.

Hard Water

Water containing Fe3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, which forms precipates with soap.

Fractional Precipitation

Removal of some ions from solution by precipitation while leaving other ions with similar properties in solution.

Theoretical Yield

Maximum amount of a specified product that could be obtained from specified amounts of reactants, assuming complete consumption of limiting reactant according to only one reaction and complete recovery of product.

Semiconductor

A substance that does not conduct electricity at low temperatures but does so at higher temperatures.

Double Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of four electrons (two pairs) between two atoms.

Enantiomer

One of the two mirror-image forms of an optically active molecule.

Cloud Chamber

A device for observing the paths of speeding particiles as vapor molecules condense on them to form foglike tracks.