Equilibria involving only one species in a single phase. For example, all gases, all liquids or all solids.
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Adhesion of a species onto the surfaces of particles.
Nuclide that is produced in a nuclear decay.
Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.
Discovered : by Henry Cavendish in 1766.
Isolated in London, UK.
Origin : The name is derived from the Greek ‘hydro genes’, meaning water forming.
Description :A colourless, odourless gas that burns and can form an explosive mixture with air. It is currently manufactured from methane gas, but is also produced by the electrolysis of water and aqueous salts. The gas is used to make such key materials as ammonia, cyclohexane and methanol, which are intermediates in the production of fertilisers, plastics and pharmaceuticals. Some see hydrogen gas as the clean fuel of the future - generated from water and returning to water when it is oxidised. Hydrogen-powered fuel cells are increasingly being seen as pollution-free sources of energy.
Of the same energy.
Molecular Orbital Theory
A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular orbitals.
Beginning in the third energy level, aset of five degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s and p orbitals of the same energy level.
Heat of Crystallization
The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.
Formula that indicates the actual number of atoms present in a molecule of a molecular substance.
Any kind of matter all specimens of which have the same chemical composition and physical properties.
Decomposition by heating a substance in the presence of a catalyst and in the absence of air.
Y2O3: A white, water-insoluble powder, Y2O3, used chiefly in incandescent gas and acetylene mantles.
The metal ion and its coordinating ligands but not any uncoordinated counter-ions.
Conjugated Double Bonds
Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.
A salt containing an ionizable hydrogen atom. Acidic salt does not necessarily produce acidic solutions.
Collision between molecules resulting in a reaction, one in which the molecules collide with proper relative orientations and sufficient energy to react.
The concept in which two or more equivalent dot formulas for the same arrangement of atoms (resonance structures) are necessary to describe the bonding in a molecule or ion.
An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the constituent ions of a slightly soluble solution.
Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).
The undesirable overgrowth of vegetation caused by high concentrates of plant nutrients in bodies of water.