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Equilibria involving only one species in a single phase. For example, all gases, all liquids or all solids.

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Hund's Rule

All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins.

Primary Standard

A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.

Carbanion

An organic ion carrying a negative charge on a carbon atom.

Halogens

Group VIIA elements: F, Cl, Br, I

Sublimation

The direct vaporization of a sold by heating without passing through the liquid state.

Electromagnetic Radiation

Energy that is propagated by means of electric and magnetic fields that oscillate in directions perpendicular to the direction of travel of the energy.

Electronegativity

A measure of the relative tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself when chemically combined with another atom.

Henry's Law

The pressure of the gas above a solution is proportional to the concentration of the gas in the solution.

Ester

A Compound of the general formula R-C-O-R1 where R and R1 may be the same or different, and may be either aliphatic or aromatic.

Functional Group

A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.