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Equilibria involving only one species in a single phase. For example, all gases, all liquids or all solids.

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Miscibility

The ability of one liquid to mix with (dissolve in) another liquid.

Hydration

Reaction of a substance with water.

Moderator

A substance such as hydrogen, deuterium, oxygen or paraffin capable of slowing fast nuetrons upon collision.

Copper

Discovered : known to ancient civilisations
Origin : The name is derived from 'Cuprum', the Latin name for Cyprus.

Hydrogenation

The reaction in which hydrogen adds across a double or triple bond.

Molecular Orbital Theory

A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular orbitals.

Osmosis

The process by which solvent molecules pass through a semipermable membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated solution.

 

Fossil Fuels

Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry

Kinetic Energy

Energy that matter processes by virtue of its motion.

Tetrahedral

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in center and four atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron.