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Equilibria involving only one species in a single phase. For example, all gases, all liquids or all solids.

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How is colored crystal made?

However, not everyone knows that in addition to the traditional transparent, there is still an unusually beautiful and spectacular colored crystal, which is obtained through the addition of various metal oxides into the glass. They give the crystal unusually noble shades of red, purple, blue, green and pink colors.

Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

Joule

A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2 which is also 0.2390 calorie.

Eluant or eluent

The solvent used in the process of elution, as in liquid chromatography.

 

Compound

A substance of two or more elements in fixed proportions. Compounds can be decomposed into their constituent elements.

Cation

A positive ion, an atom or group of atoms that has lost one or more electrons.

Solute

The dispersed (dissolved) phase of a solution.

Combustible

Classification of liquid substances that will burn on the basis of flash points. A combustible liquid means any liquid having a flash point at or above 37.8°C (100°F) but below 93.3°C (200°F), except any mixture having components with flash points of 93.3°C (200°F) or higher, the total of which makes up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.

Single Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of two electrons (one pair) between two atoms.

Sigma Bonds

Bonds resulting from the head-on overlap of atomic orbitals, in which the region of electron sharing is along and (cylindrically) symmetrical to the imaginary line connecting the bonded atoms.