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Equilibria involving only one species in a single phase. For example, all gases, all liquids or all solids.

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Adsorption

Adhesion of a species onto the surfaces of particles.

Daughter Nuclide

Nuclide that is produced in a nuclear decay.

 

Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

Hydrogen

Discovered : by Henry Cavendish in 1766.
Isolated in London, UK.
Origin : The name is derived from the Greek ‘hydro genes’, meaning water forming.
Description :A colourless, odourless gas that burns and can form an explosive mixture with air. It is currently manufactured from methane gas, but is also produced by the electrolysis of water and aqueous salts. The gas is used to make such key materials as ammonia, cyclohexane and methanol, which are intermediates in the production of fertilisers, plastics and pharmaceuticals. Some see hydrogen gas as the clean fuel of the future - generated from water and returning to water when it is oxidised. Hydrogen-powered fuel cells are increasingly being seen as pollution-free sources of energy.

Degenerate

Of the same energy.

Molecular Orbital Theory

A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular orbitals.

D-Orbitals

Beginning in the third energy level, aset of five degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s and p orbitals of the same energy level.

 

Heat of Crystallization

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

Molecular Formula

Formula that indicates the actual number of atoms present in a molecule of a molecular substance.

Substance

Any kind of matter all specimens of which have the same chemical composition and physical properties.

 

Thermal Cracking

Decomposition by heating a substance in the presence of a catalyst and in the absence of air.

 

yttria

Y2O3: A white, water-insoluble powder, Y2O3, used chiefly in incandescent gas and acetylene mantles.

Coordination Sphere

The metal ion and its coordinating ligands but not any uncoordinated counter-ions.

Conjugated Double Bonds

Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.

Acidic Salt

A salt containing an ionizable hydrogen atom. Acidic salt does not necessarily produce acidic solutions.

Effective Collisons

Collision between molecules resulting in a reaction, one in which the molecules collide with proper relative orientations and sufficient energy to react.

 

Resonance

The concept in which two or more equivalent dot formulas for the same arrangement of atoms (resonance structures) are necessary to describe the bonding in a molecule or ion.

Precipitate

An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the constituent ions of a slightly soluble solution.

Oxidation Numbers

Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

Eutrophication

The undesirable overgrowth of vegetation caused by high concentrates of plant nutrients in bodies of water.