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Equilibria involving only one species in a single phase. For example, all gases, all liquids or all solids.

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Oxide

A binary compound of oxygen.

Photon

A packet of light or electromagnetic radiation, also called quantum of light.

 

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Autoionization

An ionization reaction between identical molecules.

Nonbonding Orbital

A molecular orbital derived only from an atomic orbital of one atom, lends neither stability nor instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons.

Alloying

Mixing of metal with other substances (usually other metals) to modify its properties.

Ideal Solution

A solution that obeys Raoult's Law exactly.

Forbidden Zone

A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

Reactants

Substances consumed in a chemical reaction.

Percent by Mass

100% times the actual yield divided by theoretical yield.