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The amount of heat required to vaporize one gram of a liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of vaporization is the amount of heat required to vaporize one mole of liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature and usually expressed ion kJ/mol.

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Valence Electrons

Outermost electrons of atoms, usually those involved in bonding.

Reverse Osmosis

Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.

xylene

Any of three oily, colorless, water-insoluble, flammable, toxic, isomeric liquids, C8H10, of the benzene series, obtained mostly from coal tar: used chiefly in the manufacture of dyes.

Nuclear Fission

The process in which a heavy nucleus splits into nuclei of intermediate masses and one or more protons are emitted.

Buffer Solution

Solution that resists change in pH, contains either a weak acid and a soluble ionic salt of the acid or a weak base and a soluble ionic salt of the base.

Ostwald Process

A process for the industrial production of nitrogen oxide and nitric acid from ammonia and oxygen.

Polyene

A compound that contains more than one double bond per molecule.

Oxidation-reduction Reactions

Reactions in which oxidation and reduction occur, also called redox reactions.

Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among elements and compounds as they undergo chemical changes.

Bubbles

Have you ever noticed that soap bubbles go up in winter and fall down in summer? The reason is that warm air is lighter than cold. And in winter the difference between the air temperature in the room (especially near the windows) and the one you exhale into the bubble is enough to overcome the heaviness of its shell.