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Water containing deuterium, a heavy isotope of hydrogen.

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Standard Molar Volume

The volume occupied by one mole of an ideal gas under standard conditions, 22.4liters.

Enantiomer

One of the two mirror-image forms of an optically active molecule.

Atomic Orbital

Region or volume in space in which the probability of finding electrons is highest.

Period

The elements in a horizontal row of the periodic table.

Activation Energy

Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

xylose

A colorless, crystalline pentose sugar, C5H10O5, derived from xylan, straw, corncobs, etc., by treating with heated dilute sulfuric acid, and dehydrating to furfural if stronger acid is used.

Barometer

A device for measuring pressure.

Chain Reaction

A reaction that, once initiated, sustains itself and expands. This is a reaction in which reactive species, such as radicals, are produced in more than one step. These reactive species, radicals, propagate the chain reaction.

 

van der Waals' Equation

An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.

Aldehyde

Compound in which an alkyl or aryl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group, general formula, O-R-C-H